This study examines the roles of school counselors in special needs education. A questionnaire survey was administered to 62 school counselors working in middle and high schools in prefecture A; then, an interview survey was conducted with nine of these counselors. The results of the surveys suggested that it was important for the counselors to provide not only counseling but also specific support in cases that required special educational needs . They took on a variety of roles such as giving specific advice through consultations, performing assessments by using intelligence tests or observing student behaviors, and offering direct support for troubled students. However, the results also suggested that adverse issues in the counselors' work environment and their positions within the school support system prevent them from adequately performing their functions. Future challenges to promoting the utilization of school counselors include clarifying their roles and creating an environment that allows them to fulfill these roles.