Departmental Bulletin Paper ゲノム医療におけるがんの遺伝子診断

森, 誠司

In Japan, leading cause of death is cancer since 1981, thus cancer is one of the most major issue to be resolved to protect the lives and health of citizens. The Japanese government announced the Phase Three Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs in October 2017. One of the aims of the plan is practical application of cancer genomic medicine to provide optimized medical care for individual cancer patients.During the past two decade, a tremendous amount of human genomic information that can be used for prognosis and therapeutic management has been revealed, and innovative sequencing technology, namely next-generation sequencing has been developed that provides with the ability to collect large amounts of DNA sequence data rapidly. These genomic research and innovation are having a huge impact on many aspect of medicine, and about to be deservedly utilized for cancer diagnosis. This review summarizes current cancer genetic testing with a focus on companion diagnostic testing for molecular-targeted anticancer drugs, and based on the fact, discusses recent progresses and challenges of genomic medicine on cancer diagnosis in Japan.

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