学術雑誌論文 モンゴル草原の遊牧から定住への社会変遷と日本への影響

星野, 仏方  ,  ソリ, ガ  ,  祖父江, 侑紀  ,  出村, 雄太  ,  ツェデンバプ, レブスレン  ,  永, 海

9 ( 1 )  , pp.1 - 27 , 2015-07 , 共生社会システム学会
内容記述
Ecosystems in the Mongolian Plateau are becoming increasingly sensitive to human intervention, leading to deterioration of already fragile ecosystems. Grassland ecosystems supply almost all of the forage needed for livestock production in the Mongolian Plateau, and support the livelihood of the region's herders and their primarily nomadic way of life. However, the grassland ecosystems are distributed over a vast region that ranges between forest and desert ecosystems, and negligent human activities have caused serious environmental consequences for human society. Grassland of Inner Mongolia has been degenerated by drought and overgrazing. Degradation and desertification of pasture region of Inner Mongolia has become a new source of Asian dust storm outbreaks. In this study, we investigated and analyzed the effects of settled grazing in Inner Mongolia and traditional nomadic grazing in Mongolia on grazing behavior of livestock using GPS satellite tracking and time series satellite imagery's analysis. The result indicated a higher grazing velocity and longer moving distance of livestock in fenced grazing of Inner Mongolia than that in traditional nomadic grazing of Mongolia. However, the grazing area of the livestock in Inner Mongolia was smaller than that in Mongolia, because the behavior of livestock in Inner Mongolia has been limited to the inside of fenced area. Therefore livestock have to spend more time grazing, increasing their step rate and moving longer distances. This may be a result of limited area due to the presence of fences in Inner Mongolia. In field study, we also calculated vegetation volume of each plant species. These results indicate that fencing associated with the settlement system of Inner Mongolia has created a new hot spot of land degradation and a new source of Asian dust storm outbreaks. The degraded grassland is habitat of the Brandt' s vole (Microtus brandti). Does the Brandt's vole make damage to the environment or does it provide management? Therefore we analyzed vegetation cover, soil temperature and soil hardness measurements at the Brandt's vole colony to examine changes of land surface characteristics caused by the activity of Brandt's voles. As a conclusion, we suppose that Brandt's voles might indicate the degradation of pasture and play important role in ecosystem recovery.
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