Departmental Bulletin Paper 『枕草子』と『源氏物語』における『白氏文集』 ――感傷詩を中心に――

張, 培華

『枕草子』と『源氏物語』における『白氏文集』の影響についての研究には、引用の視点一つをとっても多種多様な考察がある。しかし、『枕草子』と『源氏物語』の両作品全体と『白氏文集』との関係や、その受容の温度差にまでふれたものについては、管見の限り見えない。そこで具体的な引用の箇所を綱羅するだけでなく、その分析に取り組むことが、本稿の目的である。結論的なことから言えば、清少納言と紫式部の両作品における『白氏文集』への好尚は歴然と分れていると言える。白居易は自らの作品を諷諭、閑適、感傷、雑律詩に四分類したが、その部類の観点で『枕草子』と『源氏物語』の両作品を分析すると、『枕草子』の方が感傷詩の引用数が多いことがわかる。また感傷詩に分類される「長恨歌」は、『枕草子』に一箇所引かれるのに対し、『源氏物語』では十二箇所の引用が指摘され、圧倒的に多い。さらに清少納言は『枕草子』の中で、意識的に感傷詩の表現を借りて、父藤原道隆を失った定子の悲況を表し、定子自身も自ら感傷詩を念頭に置く詠歌を行っていた。その結果、感傷詩が多くなったといえよう。このように、清少納言と紫式部の感傷詩の引用の差異に着目して、両作品の性格の本質を考察することを試みる次第である。It is possible, even when looking at something as simple as quotations of Bai Juyi’s anthology in such works as Makura no sōshi (Pillow book, c. 995-1004) and Genji monogatari (Tale of Genji, 1001), to take a number of differing approaches. As far as I can see, however, no attempts have yet been made to explore the overall relationships between these two last works, on the one hand, and Bai Juyi’s anthology, on the other, or the varying degrees to which each of these Japanese works incorporate that poetry. Far from compiling a mere glossary of quotations, this paper provides detailed analysis of a number of such quotations. Simply put, I argue that the Pillow Book and the Tale of Genji show obvious differences in the way their authors approached Bai Juyi’s poetry. The poet himself divided his poetry into four categories, namely, satirical verses, verses on leisure and tranquility, verses of lamentation, and miscellaneous verses. Interestingly, the author of the Pillow Book has drawn the majority of her quotations from Bai Juyi’s verses of lamentation. Whereas the Pillow Book contains only one quotation taken from Bai Juyi ’ s famous Changhenge (Song of sorrow), the Tale of Genji contains a total of twelve quotations from this lengthy poem. Furthermore, the author of the Pillow Book has very deliberately employed a number of expressions taken from Bai Juyi’s verses of lamentation, not only, in her capacity of narrator, when describing the sorrow felt by Teishi at the loss of her father, but also in those verses spoken from Teishi’s own lips. This paper, by looking closely at the ways in which these two Japanese authors employ the poetry if Bai Juyi, especially his verses of lamentation, seeks to gain a clearer understanding of their works.

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