Departmental Bulletin Paper 久世切の本文 ――抄出本『萬葉集』の基礎的研究のために――

景井, 詳雅

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平安時代には『萬葉集』を抄出した抄出本が存在し、萬葉歌享受において重要な位置を占めていたと考えられるのだが、古筆切のみの現存であるためその実態は不明な点が多い。そこで、抄出本『萬葉集』の古筆切の一つ久世切の本文を考察し、その性格の一端を明らかにすることを目的としたのが本稿である。久世切に見える抄出本『萬葉集』は、『萬葉集』の歌順に従って歌を抄出・配列し、歌は仮名でそれ以外の内容は漢字で表記する。その内容は概ね『萬葉集』と対応するが、『萬葉集』の左注や作者名の文言の簡略化、作者名の位置変更、巻に関する表示がないことが確認される。そして、久世切は写本と考えられるため、これらの変容は書承の際に生じたとも考えられる。ただし、以上の変容は平安和歌のありように通じ、他の抄出本『萬葉集』や『萬葉集』を意義分類した類聚古集にも見えることをふまえると、抄出本作成の際に『萬葉集』の内容を変質化しない程度で変更されたものと考えられる。つまり、久世切に見える抄出本『萬葉集』は、『萬葉集』の縮小化を意図した抄出本であり、『萬葉集』に従うことが原則であったと考えられる。その一方で、久世切には、現存の『萬葉集』伝本はもちろん平安和歌の影響や書承過程での変容とも思えない特異な本文も認められる。久世切に見える抄出本『萬葉集』が現存の『萬葉集』伝本とは異なる場で成立した可能性を視野に入れておくべきであろう。During the Heian period, a number of excepted editions of the Man’yōshū (Anthology of myriad leaves, later half of the 8th century) were produced. While it is thought that these excerpted editions played an important role in the anthology’s reception, the fact remains that all extant examples are mere fragments, for which reason a concrete understanding of their overall significance is difficult to obtain. This paper aims at elucidating one aspect of the so-called Kuze Fragment by offering a thorough reading of its text. The excerpted poems found in this fragment have been placed in the same order as they are found in the Man’yōshū. Poems are written in the cursive (kana) syllabary, while all other material is recorded in Sinitic graphs (kanji). While most of the fragment’s content corresponds more-or-less to that of the Man’yōshū, it nevertheless simplifies or alters certain elements found in the latter, such as commentaries, names of poets, omitting altogether any indication of fascicle number. Considering the Kuze Fragment is thought to be a copy of an earlier manuscript, it may be assumed that these alterations and omissions were brought about by the copyist. Considering, however, that similar alterations may also be found in other excerpted editions, as well as various reordered (categorized) editions of the Man’yōshū, it follows that the excerpted editions were altered only within certain limits, such that the content of the original poems would not actually be changed. That is to say, the Kuze Fragment may be understood as an abridged version of the Man’yōshū, one which sought not to manipulate but to faithfully reproduce the content of its base text. On the other hand, this Kuze Fragment does contain a number of very curious passages which cannot be attributed merely to later developments in Heian poetry or the error of a copyist. We must not rule out the possibility, then, that the Man’yōshū upon which this Kuze Fragment was based might have been produced under a different set of circumstances than those manuscripts extant today.
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