Departmental Bulletin Paper 近世日光をめぐる歴史意識 ――『日光山志』・『日光巡拝図誌』を中心として――

岩橋, 清美

本論文は、一九世紀初頭における日光をめぐる歴史意識について、植田孟縉の『日光山志』と竹村立義の『日光巡拝図誌』をもとに論じるものである。『日光山志』は五巻五冊からなり、天保七年(一八三六)に刊行されたもので、日光に関する最もまとまった内容を持つ地誌である。その内容は中世以来の山岳霊場としての歴史から書きはじめられ、山内の景観・建物の構造・奥日光の動植物・日光周辺地域の人々の暮らしにまで及ぶ。孟縉は、東照宮だけではなく周辺地域を含めて「日光」であることを示し、江戸幕府の権威の象徴として描いている。こうした、彼の歴史意識は、八王子千人同心という身分集団に属していたことに規定されていると言える。これに対し竹村立義は、東照宮というこれまで秘匿されてきたものを、豊富な挿絵で視覚化し、自らの考証を加えて『日光巡拝図誌』を編纂した。特に注目されるのは、武家であっても容易に入ることができない奥院御廟を様子や東遊・延年之舞といった儀式を描いた挿絵である。『日光山志』が日光山全体を詳細に記述しているのに対し、『日光巡拝図誌』は参詣者の興味関心を中心にまとめられた書物と言えよう。両者の日光へのアプローチは非常に対照的ではあるが、二つの地誌に共通することは、日光に関するまとまった情報を読者に提供し、東照宮をより民衆に開かれた存在にしたことである。その背景には参詣者の増加や東照宮信仰の広がりがある。こうした東照宮をめぐる社会の変化が東照宮の書物化を可能にし、多くの読者を生み出したと言えよう。二つの地誌は、まさに一九世紀初頭の読者を意識したものであり、これらを通して日光の歴史化が図られたのである。This paper discusses historical perceptions of Nikko at the beginning of the 19th Century based on the “Nikko Sanshi Topography” by Moshin Ueda and the “Nikko Pilgrimage Topology” by Ritsugi Takemura. Consisting of five scrolls and five booklets, the “Nikko Sanshi Topography” was published in the seventh year of the Tenpo era (1836) and is the most coherent topography of the Nikko region. The work begins with a history of sacred places in the mountains existing from theMiddle Ages and goes on to describe and illustrate mountain scenery, the structure of buildings, the fauna and flora of the Nikko region and the daily lives of people in its environs. Moshin depicts Nikko as a symbol of the authority of the Edo Shogunate that comprises not only the Tosho-gu Shrine, but also the surrounding areas. Moshin’s historical perceptions can be seen as deriving from the Hachioji Sennin Doshin (junior officials in Hachioji), the social rank to which he belonged.In contrast, the “Nikko Pilgrimage Topology” is a compilation by Ritsugi Takemura comprising visual illustrations of previously obscure aspects of the “Tosho-gu Shrine” with additional historical commentary by the author. One particular feature of note is the illustrations of the appearance of the “inner shrine,” access to which was difficult even for members of the samurai class, and events such as the “Azuma Asobi,” an ancient Japanese dance suite that originated in eastern Japan, as well as the “Ennen no Mai,” or “longevity dance.” In contrast with the “Nikko Sanshi Topography,” the “Nikko Pilgrimage Topology” can be thought of as a work that focuses on the interests and concerns of pilgrims.While there is a sharp contrast between the approaches of the two authors, one element that their works share is that they both depict “Nikko,” an area for which no topologies had previously been compiled, bringing the world of the Tosho-gu Shrine closer to the common people. In the background to this lie the growing numbers of pilgrims and the spread of the religion of the Tosho-gu Shrine. It is likely that it was such social changes as these revolving around the Tosho-gu Shrine that made it possible to present the shrine in book form and thus gave rise to a great many readers. Without a doubt, these two topologies were compiled with an awareness of readers at the beginning of the 19th Century and presented the historicization of Nikko in graphic form.

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