Departmental Bulletin Paper 《特集》キリシタンの跡をたどる ――バチカン図書館所蔵マレガ収集文書の発見と国際交流―― 近世日本豊後のキリシタン禁制と民衆統制

佐藤, 晃洋

本稿では、現在まで調査されたバチカン図書館所蔵マリオ・マレガ神父収集文書を中心として、臼杵藩を例に近世豊後におけるキリシタン禁制政策の展開について検討した。臼杵藩のキリシタン禁制政策は、当初、キリシタン一人一人を改宗させることをめざしていた。表面上キリシタンがいない状況になった寛永12年(1635)、改宗した者を名子・下人なども含む「いえ」単位で把握し監視する体制を作っている。正保3年(1646)、改宗した者が改宗する前に生まれた子ども等も監視の対象者に加え、各村の地縁的な繋がりを断ちきって改宗した者を散らばらせ五人組を編成することにより、監視体制の強化を図った。延宝5年(1677)以降は隔年で長崎奉行所から踏絵を借用し絵踏を実施し、元禄元年(1688)からは絵踏を毎年実施としている。貞享4年(1687)には「類族」も監視対象とされ、臼杵藩のキリシタン禁制政策は確立した。この政策は明治4年(1871)まで継続しているが、19世紀になると、宗門改が民衆統制のための年中行事となり、「家内帳」等による民衆把握に重点が置かれるようになっていった。This paper examines the development of anti-Christian policies in the Bungo region in the early modern period. This will be done by taking the Usuki domain as a case study mainly on the basis of the documents in the Vatican Library’s Marega Collection already surveyed.Initially, the Usuki domain’s policy was to have Christians change their religious affiliation one by one. At least on the surface by the year 1635 (Kan’ei 12) no Christians had remained, and at this stage a system for pinning down all the “converts” and monitoring them by household units (including serfs and subordinates of different kinds) was created. In 1646 (Shoho 3) this surveillance system was further strengthened: children born before their parents conversion and others were also subject to monitoring, and were organized Five-household Groups (goningumi) that held collective responsibility to avoid a concentration of “converts” and ensure that the territorial bonds within villages were severed.After 1677 (Enpō 5) every other year copper-plated “images to be trampled on” or fumi-e were borrowed from the Nagasaki magistrate to carry out an allegiance test, and from 1688, the first year of the Genroku period, a “trampling on images” (e-fumi ) was held annually. In 1687 (Jōkyō 4) the anti-Christian policy in the Usuki domain took his definitive form, by also including descendants of former Christians, known as “cognates” (ruizoku), as objects of surveillance. This system continued to be enforced until 1871, but in the 19th century the Verification of Religious Affiliation” (shūmon aratame) became an annual event for social control, and the emphasis was rather placed on having a firm grasp of local society and its membership through such documents as the kanai-chō, or Family Register.

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