紀要論文 看護研究論文からみるスピリチュアリティの定義

鵜生川, 恵美子  ,  Ubukawa, Emiko  ,  中西, 陽子  ,  Nakanishi, Yoko

13pp.1 - 13 , 2018-03 , 群馬県立県民健康科学大学
ISSN:1881-0691
内容記述
本論は,看護研究にて関心が高まっている日本と英語圏諸国のスピリチュアリティの定義についての文献による比較検討である.1950年代から1970年代の英語圏諸国において,スピリチュアリティが宗教と同一視されていた背景には,聖職者によるパストラルケアの実践がある.1980年代から1990年代にかけての看護のパラダイムが,宗教的側面の強調から全人的な人間理解に係る概念へと変わった.日本への概念の導入はその後1990年代後半~2000年以降になる.明確な定義は見出されないものの,共通項目は次に示すとおりである.1)人間存在の根源性に関わり,全ての人間が本来持ち合わせている力.2)「自己」「他者」「超越的存在」との関連性において,人生の意味や目的を見出す力.3)危機的状況に直面した時に潜在化する.4)宗教的側面を含めるが,宗教と同一ではない.定義の必要性の一方,英語圏諸国においては,普遍的な定義を求めることに対する非現実性を示す見解も見られる.
This paper aims to provide a comparative overview of definitions of spirituality in the nursing literature from Japan and three English-speaking countries (the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada). Much of the nursing literature selected in this paper includes research on definitions of spirituality suggested by individual researchers, review studies on definitions mentioned by previous researchers and researchers' opinions of spirituality. As indicated by one research paper, from the 1950s to the 1970s, spirituality in the target countries was regarded as the same as religion under the influence of pastoral care offered by priests in medical settings. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the paradigm in the nursing field shifted from the religious dimension to the holistic dimension of human beings. The concept of spirituality was introduced in Japan between the late 1990s and the early 2000s. The findings of our research indicate difficulties in conceptualizing spirituality in the nursing field because of its ambiguity and conceptual confusion. Despite the increased interest in spirituality, there has been little agreement over its definition. However, the traits common in definitions of spirituality as suggested by many researchers are as follows: 1) the innate power all individuals possess; 2) an essential, integrative energy which could drive us to search for the meaning or purpose of life in relationships with ‘self,'‘others,' and ‘transcendence;' 3) the potential power we find when people are faced with difficulties or crises; and 4) spirituality has been associated with religion but is not the same as religion. Many nursing researchers have stated it is necessary to define spirituality for better practice in the nursing field while others find it unnecessary to define spirituality due to its uniqueness to individuals.
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https://gair.media.gunma-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10087/11837/1/01_Ubukawa.pdf

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