Departmental Bulletin Paper 日本語学習者の作文執筆修正過程 : 中国人学習者と韓国人学習者の修正の位置と種類の分析から
The Writing Revision Process by Learners of Japanese: An Analysis of Position and Type of Revision by Chinese and Korean Learners

田中, 啓行  ,  石黒, 圭  ,  Hiroyuki, TANAKA  ,  Kei, ISHIGURO

(14)  , pp.255 - 274 , 2018-01 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print2186-1358 online
NCID:AA12536262
Description
本研究は,日本語学習者の大学生が作文を執筆する際に,どの部分をどのように修正しているかを明らかにすることを目的として,パソコンを用いて執筆した2,000字程度の作文の執筆過程を分析したものである。執筆中にEnterキー,Deleteキーなどを押した箇所を記録し,その記録を基に,修正の位置と種類のタグ付けを行った。分析対象とした作文は,中国人日本語学習者,韓国人日本語学習者,日本語母語話者の大学生各20名が書いた説明文,意見文,歴史文の3種,合計180本である。まず,「①修正数」は,韓国人学習者,中国人学習者,母語話者の順に多かった。次に,「②修正の種類」は,3グループともに,多い順から「変更」「挿入」「削除」「反復」「移動」であり,いったん入力した表現を消して打ち直す修正がもっとも多いことがわかった。各修正の割合は,中国人学習者と母語話者が似た傾向を示し,韓国人学習者は「挿入」と「反復」が多いという特徴が見られた。さらに,「③修正の位置」は,中国人学習者は執筆中の作文の文字列の先端部分である「先頭部」を修正する「入力」が多かったのに対して,韓国人学習者は先頭部がある段落とは別の段落を修正する「段落外」が多かった。母語話者は,他のグループよりも,先頭部を含む文の中を修正する「文内」の割合が高かった。また,「②修正の種類」「③修正の位置」とは別に,ある箇所を修正した後,先頭部に戻らずに続けて別の箇所の修正を行った部分に「推敲」というタグを付けて集計したところ,韓国人学習者の修正の半数近くが「推敲」であり,「推敲」が約30%の中国人学習者,約20%の母語話者よりも割合が高かった。以上より,母語話者は,入力中の先頭部の文節だけでなく,その文節を含む文の範囲を考慮に入れながら修正を行う一方,複数箇所の修正を連続で行うことは少ない,韓国人学習者は,作文をある程度書き進めてから,書き終わった段落を中心に修正し,複数箇所を続けて修正することが多い,中国人学習者は,入力中の文の先頭部を中心に修正しながら執筆していることが明らかになった。
With the intention of understanding where and how university students who are learning Japanese revise their writings, this study analyzes the writing process of 2000-character long essays written by students using their personal computers. The parts for which the enter key and delete key were pressed during writing were recorded. Based on the record, the positions and types of revisions were tagged. A total of 180 essays were analyzed, which were categorized into three types (explanatory, opinionative, and historical) and written by 20 Chinese (CN) students learning Japanese, 20 Korean (KR) students learning Japanese, and 20 students who were native speakers of Japanese (JP). The largest “1. Number of revisions” was made by KR, followed by CN and JP in that order. Next, “2. Type of revisions” made in common by all three groups was “Alter,” “Insert,” “Delete,” “Repeat,” and “Move” in descending order. This indicates that the most frequent revision is to alter (i.e., delete an expression that was once entered and re-enter another). The proportion of each revision was similar between CN and JP students, while KR students made frequent “Insert” and “Repeat” revisions. Depending on the group, “3. Position of revisions” varied. CN students made frequent “Enter,” which means making revisions to the “Head” (the most recently entered part of the string currently being written) while writing the string. KR students made frequent revisions to “Outside paragraph,” which means making revisions to a paragraph other than the paragraph currently being written. Compared with those two groups, JP students made more frequent revisions to “Inside sentence,” which means making revisions to the sentence currently being written. Besides “2. Type of revisions” and “3. Position of revisions,” “Elaboration” tags were also calculated. Such tags were also given to a section where they revised a part and subsequently revised another part in a row without returning to the head. Then, nearly 50% of the revisions by KR students were “Elaboration,” which was higher in proportion than “Elaboration” by CN and JP students, which were approximately 30% and 20%, respectively. The study indicates the following: When making revisions, JP students consider not only the segments they are currently entering but also the scope of the sentence beyond the segment, while they do not make many consecutive revisions to multiple parts; KR students write a certain amount first and then focus on revising the paragraphs they have written; and CN students write while mainly revising the head of theirwritings.
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