Departmental Bulletin Paper 多義動詞としての「知る」と「分かる」の使い分け : コーパスを活用した類義語分析
Corpus Analysis of the Polysemic Quasi-Synonymous Words shiru and wakaru

生天目, 知美  ,  高原, 真理  ,  砂川, 有里子  ,  Tomomi, NABATAME  ,  Mari, TAKAHARA  ,  Yuriko, SUNAKAWA

(12)  , pp.63 - 79 , 2017-01 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print2186-1358 online
This study's purpose is on quasi-synonym instruction that can be easily understood by Japanese language learners. It aims to systematically describe the differences in the usage of two verbs, shiru (know) and wakaru (understand), each of which denoting a variety of meanings. For the purpose of systematic description, we collected examples from the large-scale Tsukuba Web Corpus (TWC). From our analysis of the possibilities of substituting shiru and wakaru under each meaning, we were able to sort the meanings into four synonymous relations: (i) acquiring and comprehending information, (ii) understanding a situation, (iii) mastering a skill, and (iv) comprehending the essence of something. Furthermore, the finding of how shiru and wakaru are semantically opposed when they cannot be substituted, we demonstrated that the differences in usage within each synonymous relation can be explained with a common framework derived from four aspects of the changes in the state of cognition that the two verbs express, namely, (i) changes from a state of not knowing, (ii) the focus on processes, (iii) retrogressive changes, and (iv) internal comprehension ability.

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