Departmental Bulletin Paper 丁寧さを表現するために日本語母語話者が用いる韻律的特徴
Prosodic Characteristics of Japanese Polite Speech Spoken by Native Speakers

鶴谷, 千春  ,  Chiharu, TSURUTANI

(11)  , pp.167 - 180 , 2016-07 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print/2186-1358 online
NCID:AA12536262
Description
日本語学習者の増加に伴い,初級以上のレベルでの円滑なコミュニケーションがより必要になってきている。学習者は,日本語の基本的な単語の高低アクセントを学んだあと,それをどうつなぐと母語話者の抑揚に近づけることができるのか,またイントネーションによってどう意図が変わるかという情報は,あまり与えられていない。初期段階のコミュニケーションでは,まず「失礼にならないように話したい」というのが優先される課題であると考え,本稿では学習者が初級段階から使っている丁寧表現「です・ます」に焦点をあてて,その韻律的特徴を考察した。まず,場面別の「です」「ます」表現を使い,東京在住の日本語母語話者に「です・ます」表現の同じ文を丁寧に話す必要がある場面とそうでない場面で発話してもらい,それを別の母語話者に聞かせ,丁寧度の評価点をつけ,音響分析の結果と照らし合わせた。丁寧であるかどうかの判断は,パラ言語情報や,状況などに左右されることから,イントネーションは重視されてこなかったが,母語話者間で丁寧だととられるイントネーションには共通のパターンがあることがわかった。
The demands of teaching advanced communication at a level higher than the beginners' level have become more obvious with an increase in the number of Japanese language learners. A key concern of L2 learners of Japanese is the risk of sounding rude in their new language environment. Intonation is one factor that can completely change the interpretation of an utterance. Nevertheless, L2 learners have a limited knowledge of Japanese intonation, such as the use of a falling tone for a declarative sentence and a rising tone for an interrogative sentence.Prosody plays an important role not only in intelligibility but also in speakers' attitudes and emotions. This study focuses on politeness as a variable in investigating possible language specific requirements for Japanese speech. Using desu, masu forms, which are polite forms introduced at beginners' level, two different scenarios, polite and non-polite, were prepared for the same sentence. Ten native speakers recorded sentences for each scenario and ten other native listeners provided politeness scores on their performance.The subject of prosodic features of polite speech has not received much attention in teaching Japanese, since perceptions of politeness can be influenced by various factors and can be difficult to objectively assess. This study identified the common prosodic features used by native speakers in polite speech, which can be used to teach L2 learners the role of these features in listeners' perceptions of politeness.
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