Departmental Bulletin Paper 在華宣教師資料の二字語とその語構成的特徴 : 蘭学資料の二字漢語との対照を兼ねて
Two-Chinese-character Words in Missionaries' Documents in China : A Comparison with the Written Documents of Dutch Studies in Japan

朱, 京偉  ,  Jingwei, ZHU

(10)  , pp.335 - 364 , 2016-01 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print/2186-1358 online
NCID:AA12536262
Description
筆者は,先行の小論(朱京偉2015)で蘭学資料の二字漢語を考察した。本稿の目的は,引き続き,宣教師資料の二字語を取り上げ,蘭学資料の二字漢語との比較対照を行なうことにある。主な結論は以下の諸点にまとめられる。まずは,二字語の語構成パターンで,日中間の相違がよく現れたのは連体修飾関係の二字語である。N+N型,V+N型,A+N型という3タイプのうち,宣教師資料ではN+N型の比率が高いのに対して,蘭学資料では逆にV+N型とA+N型の比率が高くなっていることが指摘できる。次に,対象となった宣教師資料と蘭学資料では,日中共通の二字語が計186語となるが,この中で,漢籍由来の「出典あり」の語は85.5%(159語)を占め,「新義あり」の語と「出典なし」の語は合わせて14.5%(27語)を占めている。日中共通の「出典あり」の語は,蘭学資料と宣教師資料の間に借用関係が存在するというよりも,日中双方で年代の古い漢籍から別々に取り入れられたものだろうと思われる。一方,日中共通の「出典なし」の語は,(1)日中双方で別々に造られ,語形が偶然に一致したもの,(2)調査範囲の制約でより早い出典例が発見できなかったもの,(3)何らかのルートで蘭学資料から宣教師資料に伝わったもの,という三通りに振り分けられる。最後に,二字語と三字語のつながりについては,今回の調査で,二字語の後語基で,造語数が多ければ多いほど,三字語の後部一字語基として用いられる確率が高いことが明らかになった。一方,二字語と四字語のつながりについては,宣教師資料で,四字語の前語基と後語基に用いられた二字語がそれぞれ二字語全体の3.7%と5.0%しか占めていないことから,両者のつながりがかなり薄いということが指摘できる。
In a previous article (Zhu 2015), I considered two-Chinese-character words in written materials of Dutch Studies in the Edo era. The current paper focuses on Chinese missionary materials, comparing two-Chinese-character words found therein with those of the Dutch Studies' written documents. My primary conclusions are as follows.First, with regard to word structure patterns, differences frequently occur in adnominal two-Chinese-character words. In missionary materials, the percentage of N+N pattern is very high, while in the materials of Dutch Studies V+N and A+N are high.Second, there are 186 common words in both materials, of which 85.5% (159 words) are from classical Chinese and 14.5% (27 words) have a new meaning or are not from classical Chinese. The words from classical Chinese have not been adopted from the materials of Dutch Studies into missionary materials, or vice versa; rather, they have been separately adopted from classical Chinese. On the other hand, the words that are not from classical Chinese fall into one of the three following categories: i) words separately created in China and Japan that coincidentally match in form, ii) words for which an earlier source could not be found due to the limited scope of the study, or iii) words that spread in some way from the documents of Dutch Studies to missionary materials.Lastly, with regard to the relationship between two-Chinese-character words and three-Chinese-character words, in this study it became clear that the greater the number of neologisms in the posterior morpheme of two-Chinese-character words, the higher the probability that they would be used as the posterior single-morpheme of three-Chinese-character words. On the other hand, two-Chinese-character words and four-Chinese-character words are only weakly connected: in missionary materials, only 3.7% of two-Chinese-character words are used as the anterior morpheme of four-Chinese-character words, and only 5.0% as the posterior morpheme.
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