Departmental Bulletin Paper 痛みを表す言語表現ウズクの地域差
Regional Differences in the Pain Expression uzuku

竹田, 晃子  ,  鑓水, 兼貴  ,  Koko, TAKEDA  ,  Kanetaka, YARIMIZU

(10)  , pp.221 - 243 , 2016-01 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print/2186-1358 online
NCID:AA12536262
Description
痛みを表す言語表現のうち動詞ウズクの使用実態について,約18万人を対象に行ったアンケート調査「慢性痛とその言語表現に関する全国調査」をもとに,地域差を中心に世代差・用法差を明らかにし,その背景を考察する。ウズクは,医療現場で患者の病態把握に用いられる質問票でよく用いられる動詞で,共通語と考えられている。しかし,調査結果の分析から,実際には西日本で主に用いられるという地域差と,50~60代で用いられるという世代差があることが明らかになった。用法差については,全国的に部位等によって使用率に違いがあることが明らかになった。この違いは,地域差や世代差と連動する形で現れる。「歯」「切り傷」では東日本を含む全国で用いられるのに対して,「頭」「関節」では西日本に限定され,「腰」「胃/腹」では愛媛県とその周辺地域へと分布域が狭まっている。痛みの性質からみて,「歯」の痛みは,「頭」「関節」「腰」「胃/腹」の順に遠くなっていくと考えられる。そして,歯からの「痛みの連続性」の順に,ウズクの使用率は減少し,分布域も狭くなる。この背景には,ウズクが細かい意味の違いでほかの語と使い分けられている(いた)ことと,身体感覚を表す「気づかない方言」であること,共通語化があると考えられる。身体感覚は個人的な感覚であるため方言が使われやすく,私的場面での使用に偏り,結果的に方言であることが気づかれにくい。関東地方では,もともと使われていたウズクの用法が狭まったか,あるいは,西日本の方言ウズクをごく一部の用法(「歯」「切り傷」)に限定して取り入れたか,双方の可能性が考えられる。
In this paper, we clarify the differences in region, generation, and meaning of the verb uzuku, which is used to express a type of pain. We consider the characteristics of its usage through analysis of data from "The Nationwide Survey for Chronic Pain and its Expressions," which was administered to approximately 180,000 people.The verb uzuku is used to diagnose the clinical condition of the patient in a medical context. It is regarded as part of the standard Japanese language and is also used in the survey. However, an analysis of the results of this survey found that uzuku is mainly used in western Japan and by people in their 50s or older.In terms of the differences in meaning, the rate of use declines nationwide in descending order when referring to "toothache," "cut," "headache," "arthralgia," "backache," and "stomachache."Uzuku is used mainly in western Japan to express "toothache," "cut," and "headache." However, it is hardly used for headaches in eastern Japan, while its rate of use in western Japan also declines in under 50s. In Ehime Prefecture, its rate of use is high in expressing "arthralgia," "backache," and "stomachache." Therefore, uzuku has a broader meaning in the Ehime dialect than in other dialects.With regard to the quality of pain, the type of pain is differentiated to an increasing degree from that of "toothache" in the case of "headache," "arthralgia," "backache," and "stomachache." In the order of continuity of pain from "toothache," the rate of use of uzuku decreases and the area of use becomes narrower.Uzuku is part of an "unnoticed dialect," which expresses physical sensation and is standardized with reduction of meaning. Physical sensation is personal, and words of physical sensation tend to be used in the private domain. Therefore, it can easily be overlooked that they are dialect forms.There are many answers to the survey that can be given other than uzuku. These are used differently according to usage or nuance. It is suggested that the meaning of uzuku has become narrower because itai/itamu has taken on the core meaning of pain, especially in the Kanto district.
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