Departmental Bulletin Paper 連濁の不規則性とローゼンの法則
Rosen's Rule and the Irregularity of Rendaku

バンス, ティモシー・J  ,  Timothy J., VANCE

(9)  , pp.207 - 214 , 2015-07 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print/2186-1358 online
長年にわたる日本語の連濁研究の結果,制約は色々見出されているが,すべて傾向に過ぎず,包括的な規則はないということが明らかになっている。しかし,21世紀に入り,ローゼンが連濁現象を新鮮な目で見て,独創的な成果を上げた(Rosen 2001, 2003)。「ローゼンの法則」とは,複合語の前部要素と後部要素が両方とも和語名詞の単一形態素であれば,どちらか(または両方)が3モーラ以上の場合は,連濁の有無が予測できるという旨の仮説である。具体的に言うと,これらの条件を満たす連濁可能な複合語は,後部要素が連濁に免疫がない限り,必ず連濁するという主張である。反例がまったくないわけではないが,きわめて強い傾向であることは否定できない。本稿の目的は,以下の三つである。まず,第1~2節でローゼンの研究を簡潔に紹介する。次に,第3~5節で和語名詞単一形態素以外の要素を含む複合語に考察を広げ,要素の制限を緩和しても,ローゼンの法則がある程度当てはまることを示す。最後に,第6節でローゼンが提案した理論的説明に着目し,残念ながらこの説明は説得力が乏しく,法則の根本原因は依然として謎であることを指摘する。
Phonologists all over the world are familiar with a set of Japanese consonant alternations called rendaku 'sequential voicing'. In many cases, a morpheme that begins with a voiceless obstruent word-initially has an allomorph beginning with a voiced obstruent that appears (at least sometimes) when that morpheme is a non-initial element in a compound. For example, /tako/ 'callus' appears with initial /d/ in /peN+dako/ 'writing callus', and the appearance of /dako/ is an instance of rendaku. Although rendaku is fundamentally irregular, more than a century of intensive research, beginning with Lyman (1894), has shown that several factors influence how likely rendaku is to occur. By the end of the twentieth century, it seemed unlikely that there was much left to discover, but Eric Rosen, in his University of British Columbia doctoral dissertation (Rosen 2001) and an article based on it (Rosen 2003), made a strikingly original contribution to rendaku research. Rosen's most important claim is that in non-coordinate, two-element compounds in which both elements are native Japanese nouns and at least one of the two is three moras or longer, rendaku is predictable. To state the claim more explicitly, in a compound A+B that meets these criteria, as long as B begins with a voiceless obstruent as a word on its own and is not immune to rendaku, A+B will have rendaku. There are exceptions to Rosen's Rule, but it is a very strong tendency, even if elements that are not native Japanese nouns are taken into consideration. This paper has three goals. First, it offers a brief introduction to Rosen's work. Next, it looks at compounds containing a wider range of element types than those that Rosen considered and shows that many such compounds conform to his predictions. Finally, the paper examines the theoretical explanation that Rosen proposes. This explanation is dubious, since it rests on the idea that voicing is marked in the environment V-([j])V or N-([j])V.

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