Departmental Bulletin Paper 日本語(話しことば)は従属部標示型の言語なのか? : 映画のシナリオの分析による検証
Is Japanese a Dependent-marking Language? ?Analysis of a Film Script?

風間, 伸次郎  ,  Shinjiro, KAZAMA

(9)  , pp.51 - 80 , 2015-07 , 国立国語研究所
ISSN:2186-134x print/2186-1358 online
日本語は動詞の人称変化を持たず,格助詞によって文法関係を示すので,書きことばをみる限りでは,典型的な従属部標示型(Dependent marking)の言語にみえる。しかし話しことばにおける実際を観察すると,主語や目的語が出現する文は少なく,たとえ現れても無助詞であることが多い。他方,述語にはやりもらいの動詞や受身,テクルなどの「逆行」表示があり,モダリティの諸形式や感情述語など主語の人称に制約のあるものも多い。したがって主語の人称が述語の方でわかるようになっている場合も多く存在する。つまり話しことばの日本語はむしろ主要部標示型(Head marking)の言語としての性質を持っているといえるかもしれない。本稿では,まず上記の仮説に関連する先行研究を集め,話しことばでハやガなど従属部標示の要素がどのような条件でどの程度機能しているのか,他方上記のような主要部標示的な要素にどのようなものがどれぐらいあるのか,を整理する。次に話しことばにおける実際の状況がどのようであるのかを知るために,1つの映画のシナリオ全体を手作業により徹底的に分析して,日本語の話しことばがどの程度主要部標示型の言語としての性質を持っているのかを検証する。
Literary Japanese seems to be a typical dependent-marking language because it does not have personal verb endings, and the grammatical relation between the verb and the core arguments is expressed by case particles. However, when we observe colloquial Japanese, we notice that most sentences have no core arguments, and arguments that do appear have no overt marking to indicate their subject and object functions. On the other hand, some inverse markers such as the yari-morai verbs (the grammaticalized auxiliary verbs 'give' and 'receive') and the passive and some modal forms of the verbs and emotional verbs have person restrictions. Therefore, it can be said that colloquial Japanese has the characteristics of a head-marking language. In this paper, I first examine previous research concerning the hypothesis above and discuss the following topics: (1) the opposition between the arguments with wa / ga / o and the arguments with no overt marking and selection condition, (2) how many and what kind of head-marking elements exist in colloquial Japanese. Second, I examine all the utterances in a movie scene by hand to characterize actual usage in colloquial Japanese. As a result, we can observe 312 (27.8% of all the sentences) tokens of arguments with overt subject marking and 118 tokens without marking. Most of the arguments with wa have the function of contrast (Taihi), while most of the arguments with ga have the function of prominence (Souki). Therefore, it can be said that no-marking (or absolute case) is the default case marker of colloquial Japanese. On the other hand, there are 243 tokens (21.6% of all the sentences) of predicates that indicate the person of the sentence indirectly. In conclusion, colloquial Japanese cannot be regarded as a dependent-marking language. Although it is difficult to regard colloquial Japanese as an exact head-marking language, I have shown that it has various indirect head markers, such as inverse markers, and demonstrated their use.

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