Departmental Bulletin Paper 韓半島南部地域青銅器~三韓時代における環濠遺跡の変化と性格
Attributes of Surrounding Moat Remains in the Southern Korean Peninsula and Their Changes during the Bronze Age to the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea

李, 秀鴻

Description
本稿では,これまで調査された韓半島南部地域の青銅器~三韓時代の環濠遺跡48ヶ所を集成し,環濠の時期ごとの特徴や性格,変化の傾向を検討した。韓半島南部地域において環濠は,青銅器時代前期には登場しており,清原大栗里遺跡で確認できる。幅の狭い3列の溝が等高線方向に曲走する。出土遺物からみて遼寧地域から直接移住した集団が築造したものと判断できる。青銅器時代において環濠の成立および拡散が明瞭に確認できる時期は,青銅器時代後期である。この時期には,大部分の環濠が嶺南地域に集中的に分布し,その中で地域的な差異も看取できる。まず,蔚山圏ではすべて丘陵上に分布し,1列の環濠がムラの周りを取り囲む形態が多い。地形や立地の特徴から,儀礼空間を区画する性格があったと判断できる。本稿では,環濠自体と環濠が眺望できる集落からなる結合体を,拠点集落と把握した。一方で,晋州圏では主に沖積地の大規模な集落に環濠が備わっている。木柵をともなう場合もあり,防御もしくは境界という機能がより強かったようである。ただし,防御といっても必ずしも戦争の際の防御だけではなく,野生動物の脅威にも対応した施設であった可能性もある。環濠が大規模な集落に設置されているため,拠点集落の指標となることは蔚山圏と同様である。環濠の成立は,青銅器時代の前期と後期の画期と評価でき,大規模な土木工事である環濠の築造を可能にした有力な個人の登場を推測することができる。三韓時代の前期には,韓半島の広い範囲に環濠遺跡が分布する。この時期には儀礼遺構としての意味が極大化する。1列の主環濠の外部に同一方向の幅狭の溝が並行するものが一般的な形態である。山頂部に円形に設置する例が多い。三韓時代の後期には環濠遺跡の数が急減する。これらは木柵をともなったり,環濠の幅が広くなったりしており,社会的緊張による防御的性格が強くなるように見受けられる。三韓時代後期に環濠が急減するのは,中国や高句麗から土城が伝来し,各地の国々が統合する過程において,地域の小単位としてあった環濠集落もより大きな単位への統合されていくためと考えられる。
This article reviews the previous studies of 48 surrounding moat remains in the southern Korean Peninsula from the Bronze Age to the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea to examine the features and characteristics of surrounding moats in each period and their transitions.In the southern Korean Peninsula, surrounding moats appeared in the early Bronze Age, as evidenced by the Daeyulri Site in Cheongwon, where three narrow moats were constructed winding along the contour line. Judging from the excavated artifacts, we can tell that they were attributed to immigrants from the Liaoning region.The oldest evidence of the establishment and spread of surrounding moats is dated to the late Bronze Age. At that time, surrounding moats were built mostly in Yeongnam, though there seem to have been regional differences. For example, in the Ulsan area, all surrounding moats were constructed on hills, and in many cases, a village was encircled by a single moat. Judging from geographical and locational features, we may assume that they were used to separate ritual spaces. This article refers to a unit consisting of a moat and the hamlets from which you can see the moat as a hub village. Meanwhile, in the Jinju area, in general, large-scale villages in river basins were enclosed by moats. Some villages even had wooden barricades, which indicates that moats were used rather for protection or as boundaries. Such security might have been intended against attacks not only from outside people but also from wild animals. Like in the Ulsan area, moats were built around largescale villages considered as hub villages in the Jinju area. The establishment of surrounding moats is considered to have marked the start of the latter half of the Bronze Age and the rise of powerful individuals that enabled large-scale construction works such as moat building.In the early Three Kingdoms Period of Korea saw the widespread of surrounding moats across the peninsula. At that time, their meaning as ritual constructions was maximized. In general, a main moat was paralleled by narrower outer moats. Many of them were located on the top of hills, forming a circle. In the late Three Kingdoms Period, the number of constructions of surrounding moats dropped sharply. In the meantime, wider moats were built, and some were even protected with wooden fences to enhance security, which seems due to mounting tensions in the region. The reasons for the drastic decrease of surrounding moats at that time are apparently because walled cities were introduced from the Chinese dynasties and Koguryo and because small units of “moat villages” were integrated into a bigger unit as the peninsula was being united.
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