紀要論文 日本古代官印と隋唐官印 : 正倉院に伝わる印影資料との比較を中心に
The Ancient Official Seals of Japan and China : A Comparison Focusing on Shoso-in Documents with Seals

田中, 史生

内容記述
本稿は,8世紀の日本官印と隋唐官印と比較することによって,日本律令国家の官印導入期における中国の影響と,日本官印の特質について考察するものである。考察の結果,日本律令国家の官印は,隋唐官印のなかでも紙による文書行政とかかわる「官署印」の直接的影響を受けて成立したが,その法量を唐よりも大型化させるとともに,官司のレヴェルに従って印面文字の字体や形式と組み合わせながら法量を細分化し,その区分を遵守させるなどの特徴があることが明らかとなった。また隋唐においては,御璽が一般的な命令伝達文書の作成過程で紙に押印されることはなく,諸州などに下される文書には,裁可された案件の諸司における処理ないし行政手続きが正しく行われることを保証するために六部所属の二十四司の印が押されたが,日本において命令伝達の中核に置かれた印は内印,すなわち天皇御璽で,中央政府の文書発給の全てを天皇が直接統治することに重きを置いた押印制度となっていた。さらに諸国印は,国府とそれが統括する地方の間の文書に印が押されるのではなく,中央政府と国府との関係の中での押印を基本としていた。そこには,日本古代官印の文書行政における実務的機能とのかかわりだけでなく,印の大きさ,押印の仕方,印面文字の字体・形式によって,中華日本を表現するともに,天皇の直接統治と,天皇を中心とした中央集権的なビラミッド型の官司配置という,日本律令制の理念的構造を表象ようとする古代国家の意図が読み取れるであろう。
This article compares official seals of Japan and China (the Sui and Tang Dynasties) in the eighth century to examine the impact of China on the introduction of official seals in the ritsuryo nation of Japan and the characteristics of Japanese official seals. The analysis reveals that although the official seal system of the ritsuryo nation of Japan was established under the influence of Sui/Tang official seals, in particular the direct influence of government office seals which were closely connected to the document administration, the Japanese system was characterized by the following points: the official seals of Japan were bigger than those of the Tang Dynasty and classified in detail by their size as well as the typeface and style of the characters on their face according to the level of government, and the classification was strictly adhered to. In addition, in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the imperial seal was not used when issuing general directives, and the seals of the 24 bureaus of the six ministries were affixed on documents sent to provinces in order to ensure implementation of approved documents and proper administrative procedures in each government office. On the other hand, in Japan, Naiin, the imperial seal, was stamped on directives as a rule, and emphasis was placed on the direct control of the emperor over all documents issued by the central government. Moreover, in principle, provincial documents were affixed not by the provincial government and its subordinate governments but by the central and provincial governments. These findings indicate not only the practical functions of official seals in the document administration in ancient Japan but also the intention to use differences in the size of seals, the way of stamping them, and the typeface and style of characters on their face to express the Japanese ethnocentrism and symbolize the direct rule of the emperor and the ideal structure of the Japanese ritsuryo system based on a pyramid, centralized government organization led by the emperor.
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