Departmental Bulletin Paper 日本古代の「知」の編成と仏典・漢籍 : 更可請章疏等目録の検討より
Organization of the Knowledge of Japanese Ancient Times, and Buddhist Literature and Chinese Books : Examination of the Catalogue of Additionally Requested Chinese Classic Books and Commentaries on Han Buddhist Scriptures

中林, 隆之

Description
正倉院文書には、天平二十年(七四八)六月十日の日付を有した、全文一筆の更可請章疏等目録と名付けられた典籍目録(帳簿)が残存する。この目録には仏典(論・章疏類)と漢籍(外典)合わせて一七二部の典籍が収録されている。小稿では、本目録の作成過程および記載内容の基礎的な検討を行い、それを前提に八世紀半ばの古代国家による思想・学術編成策の一端を解明した。本目録には、八世紀前半に新羅で留学した審詳所蔵の典籍の一部が掲載されていた。審詳の死後は、彼の所蔵典籍は、弟子で生成期の花厳宗の一員でもあった平摂が管理した。本目録は、僧綱による全容の捕捉・検定を前提として、内裏が審詳の所蔵典籍の貸し出しを平摂の房に求めた原目録をもとに、それを平摂房で忠実に書写し、写経所に渡したものであった。審詳の所蔵典籍には、彼が新羅で入手したものが多かった。仏典は、元暁など新羅人撰述の章疏類が一定の比重をしめた。それらの仏典は、写経所での常疏の書写に先だって長期にわたり内裏に貸し出されていた。内裏に貸し出された中で、とくに華厳系の章疏類は、南都六宗の筆頭たる花厳宗が担当する講読章疏の選定と布施額の調整などに活用された。漢籍も、最新の唐の書籍や南北朝期以来の古本、さらに兵書までをも含むなど、激動の東アジア情勢を反映した多様な内容であったが、これらも内裏に貸し出され、国家による諸学術の拡充政策などに活用されたとみられる。八世紀半ばの日本古代王権は、『華厳経』を頂点とする仏教を主軸においた諸思想・学術の国家的な編成・整備政策を推進したが、その際、唐からの直接的な知的資源の確保の困難性という所与の国際的条件のもと、本目録にみられたものを含む、新羅との交流を通して入手した典籍群が一定の重要な役割を担ったのである。
The Shosoin Archives have a book catalogue (register) dated the tenth day of the sixth month in the year Tenpyo 20 (748) and titled “Catalogue of Additionally Requested Chinese Classic Books and Commentaries on Han Buddhist Scriptures” (hereinafter the “Catalogue”) . It contains a total of 172 books ranging from Buddhist literature (translated guides and commentaries on Han Buddhist scriptures) to Chinese books (secular books) . Through a brief examination of the production process and content of the Catalogue, this article discovers part of policies to organize thoughts and knowledge in ancient Japan in the mid-eighth century.The Catalogue includes some of the books belonging to Shinsho, who studied in Silla in the first half of the eighth century. After his death, the collection of books was managed by Hyosho , a disciple of Shinsho and a member of the initial Kegon sect. This Catalogue is a precise copy of the original catalogue of the books of Shinsho which the Dairi (Imperial Palace) borrowed from the monastery of Hyosho. It was made by the monastery and submitted to the Shakyojo (Sutra Copying Office) when asked by Sogo (Buddhist ecclesiastical authority) for the purpose of making a complete inventory and inspection.Many of Shinsho's books came from Silla. His Buddhist literature consisted of commentaries written by Silla scholars and monks such as Gangyo (Wonhyo) . Before the Shakyojo started copying Buddhist guides and commentaries, Shinsho's books were lent to the Dairi for years. Especially, commentaries on Kegon sutras were used for lectures given by the Kegon sect, the leading sect of the six sects of Nara, as well as for determination of the amount of donations. On the other hand, Shinsho's Chinese book collection included a wide range of topics, such as the then latest books of the Tang Dynasty, ancient books after the Nan-Bei Chao period, and military tactics books, which reflected the turbulent situation of East Asia at that time. These books were also borrowed by the Dairi and used for policies to advance arts and sciences.In the mid-eighth century in Japan, the ancient imperial authority promoted national policies to establish and develop thoughts and knowledge centered on the Buddhism based on the Kegon Sutra. At that time, since they had difficulties acquiring intellectual resources directly from the Tang Dynasty due to the given international conditions, a collection of books obtained through exchanges with Silla, including those in the Catalogue, played a certain important role.
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