紀要論文 黎明期の日本古代木簡
The Dawn of Ancient Japanese Wooden Tablets

市, 大樹

内容記述
日本最古級の木簡の再検討、法隆寺金堂釈迦三尊像台座墨書銘の再釈読、百済木簡との比較研究などを通じて、日本列島における木簡使用の開始および展開について検討を加え、次のような結論を得た。①日本列島における木簡使用は、王仁や王辰爾の伝承が示唆するように、百済を中心とする朝鮮半島から渡来した人々を通じて、早ければ五世紀代に、遅くとも六世紀後半には開始された。具体的な証拠物によっては裏づけられないが、『日本書紀』の記事やその後の状況などを総合すると、王都とその周辺部、屯倉を中心とした地方拠点で、限定的に使用されるにとどまったと推定される。当該期には、主として物や人の管理に関わって、音声では代用できない事項を中心に、記録木簡が先行する形で使用されと推測される。②六四〇年代頃になると、ある程度木簡が普及するようになり、発掘調査によって木簡の存在を確かめることができるようになる。しかし、木簡が出土している場所は、基本的に飛鳥・難波といった王都とその周辺部にとどまり、依然として大きな広がりは認められない。出土点数も微々たるものにとどまっている。とはいえ、文書・記録・荷札・付札・習書・その他の木簡が存在しており、その後につながる木簡使用が認められる点は重要である。ただし、木簡の内容を具体的にみると、その後の木簡と比べて、典型的な書式にもとづいて記載されたものが少なく、やや特殊な場面で使用された木簡の比率が高い。これらのことは、日常的な行政の場で木簡を使用する機会が、のちの時代よりも少なかったことを意味している。③天武朝(六七二-八六)になると、木簡の出土点数が爆発的に増大し、紀年銘木簡も天武四年(六七五)以後連続して現れるようになる。木簡が出土する遺跡も、王都とその周辺部に限られなくなり、地方への広がりも顕著に認められる。木簡の種類・内容に注目すると、荷札木簡が目立つようになり、前白木簡など上申の文書木簡も多く使用されている。また、記録木簡や習書木簡も頻用された。ただし、下達の文書木簡はあまり使われなかった。こうした木簡文化の飛躍的発展をもたらした背景として、日本律令国家の建設にともなう地方支配の進展・文書行政の展開があった。天武朝とそれに続く持統朝(六八七-九七)には、日本と中国(唐)との間に国交はなく、新羅との直接交渉を通じて、さらに渡来人の子孫や亡命百済人などの知識を総動員しながら、国づくりが進められた。そのため、当該期の木簡には、韓国木簡の影響が色濃い。④大宝元年(七〇一)になると、約三〇年ぶりとなる遣唐使の任命(天候不順のため、派遣は翌年に延期)、大宝律令の制定・施行、独自年号(大宝)の使用などがおこなわれ、従来のような朝鮮半島を経由して中国の古い制度を学ぶのではなく、同時代の最新の中国制度を直接摂取しようとする志向が強くなっていく。これにともなって、木簡の表記・書式・書風などの面で、同時代の唐を模倣する動きが現れ、かつての朝鮮半島からの直接的な影響がやわらぐ。
Through a reexamination of some of Japan's oldest wooden tablets, a reinterpretation of the writing in sumi ink on the supplementary material of the pedestal of the Shaka Triad enshrined in the Kon-do (Main Hall) of Horyu-ji Temple, and a comparison with Baekje wooden tablets, this study examines the start and development of use of wooden tablets in the Japanese Islands and draws the following conclusions. (1) As suggested by the legends of Wani (Wang In) and Oh Jin-ni , wooden tablets were introduced to the Japanese Islands at earliest in the fifth century or at latest in the latter half of the sixth century by immigrants from Baekje and other parts of the Korean Peninsula. Though there is no supporting evidence, putting all accounts together, including the articles of Nihon Shoki ( the Chronicle of Japan) , it can be deduced that the use of wooden tablets was limited to the area in and around the imperial capital, miyake (imperial-controlled territories) , and regional hubs. It is considered that at that time, wooden tablets for record purposes were adopted ahead of others. They were used mainly for management of people and goods, in particular when verbal communication was unavailable. (2) Around in the 640s, the use of wooden tablets spread to some degree. Their existence is corroborated by excavation research. Still, as a rule, the use was limited to the imperial capital and its surroundings, such as Asuka and Naniwa. Not only was the use geographically confined but also the number of wooden tablets excavated from that time is limited. Nevertheless, there is an important finding that various kinds of wooden tablets were used in their early stages, such as document, record, shipping label, tag, writing practice, and other wooden tablets. A close examination into the content of wooden tablets reveals that compared to later use, many wooden tablets were free from typical document styles and used in rather special circumstances. This means that there were fewer occasions to use wooden tablets in everyday administration at that time than later. (3) The Tenmu period (672-686) saw an explosive increase in the use of wooden tablets. Especially, wooden tablets dated using imperial year names appeared consecutively after 675 (Tenmu 4) . Moreover, wooden tablets were excavated not only from sites in and around the imperial capital but also in other provinces. With regard to the type and content of wooden tablets, the use of shipping labels multiplied dramatically, and document wooden tablets to report to higher officials, such as zenpaku mokkan, were often used. In addition, wooden tablets were also frequently used for record and writing practice purposes. In contrast, document wooden tablets to give directions to subordinates were rarely produced. There was a historical background behind this remarkable development of the wooden tablet culture; with the establishment of the ritsuryo nation of Japan, the imperial government expanded its territory and document administration system to rural areas. From the Tenmu period to the Jito period (687-697) , when it had no diplomatic relationship with China (the Tang Dynasty) , Japan promoted nation building through direct interchanges with Silla and full use of knowledge of migrant descendants and Baekje exiles. Therefore, the wooden tablets produced at that time were significantly affected by Korean wooden tablets. (4) In 701 (Taiho 1) , a mission to the Tang Dynasty was arranged for the first time in the past three decades (the dispatch was postponed one year due to bad weather) , Taiho Ritsuryo (the Code of Taiho) was formulated and put in effect, and the use of the original era name, Taiho, started. Japan was more inclined to learn the latest system at that time directly from China rather than learn old Chinese systems through the Korean Peninsula. At the same time, Japan started to imitate the description, document style, and calligraphy manner of wooden tablets of the Tang Dynasty, and the influence of the Korean Peninsula was weakening.
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