The Development of the Austrian Constitution since 1955― Amendments to the Constitution ―（４）
奥, 正嗣 ,
オク, マサツグOku, Masatsugu
国際研究論叢 : 大阪国際大学紀要 = OIU journal of international studies
70 , 2017-01-31
This paper examines the development of the Austrian Constitution since 1955. The Federal Republic of Austria declared “eternal neutrality” by enacting the Constitutional Law of 1955, but since then the Austrian Constitution has experienced great changes. Firstly, the meaning of “eternal neutrality” changed along with changes in the international situation, such as Austria joining the United Nations in 1955, the European Union in 1995, and the end of the “cold war” indicated by the fall of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1992. Secondly, the rights of individuals and state (Land) were further strengthened by many amendments of the Constitution concerning federalism, democracy, fundamental rights, and courts (constitutional court, administrative court) which are the fundamental principles of the Austrian Constitution. Thirdly, Austria joining the European Union added various rights and duties between Austrian organs of state and the European Union’s organs. Lastly, we examine the reform of the Austrian Constitution.