Journal Article Measures to Maintain and Improve the Health and Physical Fitness of the Elderly, and the Characteristics of their Health Behaviors and Considerations
Measures to Maintain and Improve the Health and Physical Fitness of the Elderly, and the Characteristics of their Health Behaviors and Considerations

Sotoyuki, USUI  ,  Department of Human Development and Sport Science, School of Human and Social Science, Tokyo International University

Description
In recent years, the "aging population combined with the low birth rate" in Japan have caused problems in the fields of health, medical, nursing, and welfare care, and it is necessary to develop general measures to prevent them and improve the situation as early as possible. In this context, the Japanese government established the "3rd National Health Promotion Strategy" (Health Japan 21) and the "Health Promotion Act", which was part of the reform of the health care system to promote the strategy, as its national policies. This year, the government initiated the second round of "Health Japan 21" based on the results of those efforts. As the main characteristics of these policies, they aim to develop social and natural environments, and help people establish healthy lifestyle habits based on improvements in their nutritional status, exercise, and recreation. These policies are expected to support health promotion with a focus on primary prevention, and, as a result, facilitate disease prevention. To live up to these expectations, researchers involved in studies on health promotion methods and approaches to enhancing physical fitness are increasingly required to establish and provide scientific evidence to develop strategic measures, with the aim of coping with the "aging society combined with the declining birth rate". In this sense, it is very significant to review scientific data on the characteristics of elderly people's physical fitness and health behaviors, related problems, and measures for maintaining and improving their health and stamina, and examine them based on groups consisting of healthy people, those with obesity, and disorders.
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