Departmental Bulletin Paper Understanding Study Abroad Programs from the Viewpoint of Apprenticeship Learning

清水, 拓野  ,  Takuya, SHIMIZU

本稿の目的は、徒弟教育論の視点から、大学によって組織される1~3週間程度の海外スタディツアーである海外研修 (study sbroad) プログラムの特徴を明らかにすることにある。徒弟教育と海外研修プログラムには、興味深い共通点が多々あるので、こうした比較分析は示唆に富んだ結果をもたらすものと思われる。本稿は、文化人類学・認知科学におけるインフォーマル教育や状況的学習(徒弟教育も含む)から学校教育を相対化するという教育研究の理論的流れを汲むものであり、大学Aの2つの海外研修プログラムの質的データを踏まえた事例研究である。事例校では、海外研修プログラムを必須化し、アクティブラーニングを導入するなど、全国的に見てもその質の向上にかなり意欲的に取り組んできたので、そのあり方について考える上で格好の資料を提供する。本稿では徒弟教育論の視点から、事例校のプログラムを分析し、その特徴を明らかにするとともに、改善点も提案して、効果的な海外研修プログラムの理論的モデル構築への貢献を目指したい。
This article aims to illuminate basic characteristics of study abroad programs in Japanese college from the viewpoint of apprenticeship learning to identify what problems exist and suggest what educational arrangements and practices are neccessary for an effective program. This is an anthropological study focusing on students' learning and based on ethnographic data from two case studies. As will show later, learning in study abroad programs has many interesting parallels with apprenticeship learning that will help us gain better understanding of it. More inportantly, such a comparative approach is deeply rooted in academic traditions of educational studies as well. Comparing school education with informal learning or situated learning (which includes apprenticeship hearning) has always been one of the most effective approaches, especially in educational anthropology and sociology, to yield persuasive accounts of how complicated school mechanism work and to illuminate basic characteristics of its taken for granted aspects which may have gone unnoticed. Thus, the analytical approach taken in this article will likewise be useful in highlighting certain characteristics of study abroad programs that are otherwise hard to recognize. As case studies, I chose two programs of University A. The school has been known in Kansai region for its carefully designed and well-organized study abroad programs making full use of active learning. Therefore, analyzing its programs provides useful tips about how to create an effective program. It is also a central purpose of this article to attempts a theorization of what consitutes a good program that can trigger deep learning among students.

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