Departmental Bulletin Paper 近代日本における芸術歌曲としての「日本歌曲」概念の成立

津上, 智実  ,  Motomi, TSUGAMI

The paper aims to make clear the birth and formation of the concept of the Japanese art song in modern Japan. Today the concept of art song and its translation as 'Kakyoku' (歌曲) are firmly established and believed to have been so for a long time. However once one makes surveys of musical activities in the Meiji and Taisho eras in Japan, one must be surprised by the absence of the technical term 'Kakyoku' in music journals or concert programs. In the case of the music magazine Gekkan-Gakuhu (月刊楽譜) or Musical Quarterly, published in Tokyo from 1912 until 1945, it is only from the year 1936 that the demonination 'Kakyoku' consistently occurs, the term 'Dokushoka(独唱歌)', which is 'Solo Song', being used much more often before that year. In order to elucidate the establishment of the concept 'Kakyoku' in modern Japan, this paper examines: 1) music dictionaries, 2) language dictionaries, and 3) terminologies of radio broadcasting. As the result of this survey, it has become clear that it is as late as after the year 1949 that the German term 'Lied' or English 'Song' were traslated as 'Kakyoku' in music dictionaries, with some sporadic usages until the 1920s. This happened later than the middle of the 1930s in the cases of music journals and concert programs. It seems important that the term 'Kakyoku' was selected and established in the music dictionary for radio broadcasting published by Japan Broadcasting Association in 1949. Almost all the music dictionaries followed it, but with some remmant of the former tradition to translate the German 'Liedform' or 'song form' not as 'Kakyoku-keishiki' but as 'Kakyoku- keishiki'. Thus the consept and the terminology of 'Kakyoku' was formed after many twists and turns in the first half of the twentieth century.

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