Departmental Bulletin Paper クリスチャン・ウォルフの図形楽譜における特徴的な手法について
On the Unique Methods of Christian Wolff's Graphic Scores

久保田, 翠  ,  Midori, KUBOTA

62 ( 2 )  , pp.89 - 110 , 2015-12
Composer Christian Wolff (1934-) developed his unique graphic scores during the years 1957-68, in which he used three characteristic methods: ratio neume, cueing, and the coordinate line.Ratio neume indicates the contents to be played during a certain limited time. Pre-indicated contents (numerals and/or alphabets shown on the right side of the colon) are to be performed during predetermined seconds (as shown on the left side of the colon).Cueing is a way to configure how to react to the sounds presented by other pyayers. In Wolff's graphic scores, dynamics or sound-range directions are written in white circles to make so-called "cues." Just when they hear the sounds appropriate to the cue, performers have to play the signs written right next to the cue.A cooedinate line prescribes how to coordinate the sounds of your own with the others. Vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines are drawn between netes to indicate the sequential order or simultaneity, and to help determine the length of the notes to be played.Wolff started writing staff-based graphic scores, but at an early stage abandoned sequentiality inherent in stave notation. After that , by introducing the method of cueing it became unnecessary to indicate the passage of the performing time, so that sounds got liberated from the timeline that controls beats and the work itself. Moreover, the introduction of the coordinate line made it easier to indicate strict simultaneity. Sounds were liberated from the measurable time. Performers' evanescent gestures and the specificities of each tone became determining elements of the quality of work itself.

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