Departmental Bulletin Paper 農業組織に見る世紀転換期ハプスブルク君主国の国家と社会―1893年の職能協同組合設立法案の検討―
State and Agricultural Organizations in the Habsburg Monarchy at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries:A Study of the 1893 Bill to Establish Farmer's Cooperatives

桐生, 裕子  ,  Yuko, Kiryu

ハプスブルク君主国の西半部(シスライタニア)では、19世紀末に至るまで任意加入の結社が農業組織の中心を成していた。しかし、農業不況の影響が顕著になり、収益の減少や増大する抵当負債に苦しむ農民が増えるなかで、1893年にはターフェ内閣によって、全ての営農家に加入義務を課す「営農家の職能共同組合(Berufsgenossenschaft der Landwirte)」の設立法案が提出された。この時代のヨーロッパでは、大不況、自由貿易体制崩壊の影響のもとで、国家構造と社会組織の関係の再編が広く進展しつつあったと指摘されている。加入義務制の「営農家の職能共同組合」設立法案の提出は、シスライタニアにおいても、国家と農業住民との間に新たな組織的関係を打ち立てる必要性が認識されつつあったことを示唆する。本稿では、1893年の「営農家の職能共同組合」設立法案について検討し、同法案がいかに農業住民を組織し、新たな組織を通じて彼らと国家の間にどのような関係を構築しようとしたか、明らかにすることを試みる。
Until the end of the 19th century, voluntary agricultural associations were widespread being the most important agricultural organizations, politically as well as administratively, in the "Cisleithania," which was the western part of the Habsburg monarchy. However, the agricultural depression and increase in the number of debt-ridden farmers, as well as forced auctions of farmlands, led the Taaffe government, which had replaced the Geman liberal government in 1879, to submit a bill to establish compulsory farmers' cooperatives (Berufsgenossenschaft der Landwirte) in 1893. The government's attempt to introduce compulsory organizations indicates that it recognized the inadequacy of the existing voluntary associations, both quantitatively and functionally. Thus, there arose a neccessity to construct a new organizational relationship between the state and its agricultural inhabitants at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the bill of 1893 as well as clarifying how the government tried to organize the agricultural inhabitants and restructure the relationship between the state and the inhabitants.

Number of accesses :  

Other information