台湾における少子化と子育て支援政策―台北市「助妳好孕」が家族に何をもたらすか―台湾における少子化と子育て支援政策―台北市「助妳好孕」が家族に何をもたらすか― Low Fertility Rate and Child Support Policy in Taiwan.: What Does“ Zhu Ni Hao Yun” Bring to Taiwanese Families in Taipei city?
In Taiwan, where in 2010 the total fertility rate dropped to the world’s lowest level,a response to the declining birthrate is an urgent policy issue. In particular, Taipei Cityhas swiftly undertaken a full review of child-rearing support, providing flexible servicesaccommodating to parenting households and workingwomen. In this study, to understand theoutline and policy aims of the “Zhu ni hao yun” pregnancy and childbirth promotion projectstarted in 2010, we conducted interviews at the Taipei City Government Department of SocialWelfare, and a fieldwork survey at Taipei City Zhu zan Parent-Child Center. Through the “Zhu ni hao yun” project, city government departments, private enterprises,and educational institutions cooperate with each other to undertake services such as subsidizingchildcare fees and child allowances, and providing monetary incentives for childbirth at a moregenerous level than in Japan, implementing extended childcare in public kindergartens, andestablishing nursery schools and childcare support facilities within enterprises. In Taiwan,the norm has been for children to be entrusted to the grandparents in a cooperative, multigenerationalfamily structure, but a thorough shift to external, service-based childcare mayreveal a movement toward a reorganization of childcare networks that promote the intellectualdevelopment of preschool children and strengthen parent-centered childcare.