Departmental Bulletin Paper 宮沢賢治「シグナルとシグナレス」の三重の寓意 ― 岩手軽便鉄道国有化問題と有島武郎の恋と天球の音楽と ―

米地 , 文夫

17 ( 2 )  , pp.177 - 196 , 2016-03 , 岩手県立大学総合政策学会
ISSN:1344-6347
Description
 宮沢賢治の短編「シグナルとシグナレス」は、従来、幻想的童話とみられていたが、実は地域の話題を寓話化した大人向けの物語であった。その話題の一つは、私鉄の岩手軽便鉄道(ほぼ現JR 釜石線)を国有化させ、国鉄(現JR)東北本線に繋ぎたいという運動をモデルにし、愛しているが離れて立つシグナレス(岩手軽便鉄道)と本線シグナルとの恋を描いた。第二の寓意は有島武郎と河野信子との恋愛で、有島武郎は新渡戸稲造の姪の信子を愛するが、鉄道の国有化に大きな影響力を持つ父有島武は、産婆の娘信子を身分違いとして結婚に反対し、新渡戸家の郷里花巻の人々の憤激を買ったことを物語化している。第三の寓意はピタゴラス派の諧音の示す天空の妙なる調和である。地上の葛藤や矛盾の多い世界と異なり、天上には美しい和の調べがあり、それが天球の音楽として、恋人たちを感動させるのである。すなわち、天:天球の音楽が示す美しい調和、地:地域社会の軽便鉄道国有化運動、人:有島武郎と河野信子の実らぬ恋、の三つの寓意がこめられた作品である。
 “Signal and Signal-less,” a short story by Kenji Miyazawa, has traditionally been considered a kind of fairy tale. However, it was actually an allegorical story for adults on issues of concern to the local community. One of the themes is about the romance of Signal-less (the Iwate Light Railway), which is separate from but in love with Signal, the main line. This theme stands for the effort to link the Iwate Light Railway (previously a private railway, most of which is currently the JR Kamaishi Line) to the Tohokuhonsen Line of the Japan National Railways Corporation (currently JR) by nationalizing the Iwate Light Railway. The second allegorical theme of the work is about the romance between Takeo Arishima and Nobuko Kono. In this story, Takeo Arishima loves Nobuko, Inazo Nitobe’s niece. However, Takeo’s father Takeshi Arishima, who was influential in nationalizing the railway, opposed his son’s marriage to Nobuko, the daughter of a midwife, because she was born into a different social class. This provoked the people of Hanamaki, the hometown of the Nitobe family. The third allegorical theme is about the dulcet tones of the spheres represented by Pythagorean tuning. Unlike Earth, which is filled with conflict and contradictions, Heaven produces a sweet harmony that melts the hearts of lovers. In other words, “Signal and Signal-less” is a work on three allegorical levels: Heaven for the dulcet tones of heavenly music, Earth for the efforts of a local community to nationalize the light railway, and people for the romance between Takeo Arishima and Nobuko Kono, which came to nothing.
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