Departmental Bulletin Paper Good Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Practices in Developing Nations : Based on Japan’s Support Experiences in Eastern and Southern Africa 

二宮, 浩輔  ,  林田, 貴範  ,  森, 卓  ,  二宮, 浩輔  ,  林田, 貴範  ,  森, 卓  ,  NINOMIYA, Kosuke  ,  HAYASHIDA, Takanori  ,  MORI, Taku  ,  ニノミヤ, コウスケ  ,  Ninomiya, Kosuke  ,  ハヤシダ, タカノリ  ,  Hayashida, Takanori  ,  モリ, タク  ,  Mori, Taku

11pp.22 - 38 , 2016-03-05 , 山梨県立大学
ISSN:2187-4336
NCID:AA12124800
Description
戦略的環境アセスメント(SEA)は、大規模な開発の計画の初期段階で行われる環境アセスメントとして、開発援助においても実施が試みられるケースが増えつつある。SEAの目的は、少ない情報を効率的に集め、環境面や社会面に配慮しながら開発の大きな方向性を示すことだが、経済、社会、文化等、国や地域を取り巻く背景は多様であり、対象となる国や地域の事情に応じた柔軟なアプローチが求められる。本研究では、過去の、日本のアフリカ諸国に対する開発援助の事例から、SEAを効果的に実施するための知見を抽出し、その意義について考察する。
The potential usefulness of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (hereinafter referred to as SEA) approach for the decision-making and broad consensus-building process of regional and/or nation-wide development master plan (hereinafter referred to as MP) studies has been recognized in many nations recently. In Africa,SEA practice is at the rudimentary stage, and several nations such as Tanzania and Kenya started to apply this approach around the end of 2000s for the delineation of their long- and medium-term development MPs. SEA practice and its legal framework, developed in the European Union (hereinafter referred to as EU) region is the most advanced across the world. However, its direct export/or transfer to developing regions such as Africa is not straightforward due to the complicated socio-cultural backgrounds and differences (e.g., diverse,multi-ethnoracial, and multi-linguistic societies) among these regions. In Japan, several pilot study-based SEA practices have been initiated mainly by the Ministry of Environment recently. Under this situation, it is notable that Japan International Co-operation Agency (hereinafter referred to as JICA)’s environmental guidelines, used for the implementation of proper environmental and social considerations for Japan’s Official Development Assistance (hereinafter referred to as ODA) projects,incorporated SEA concepts therein, and started its actual application after the year 2010. The number of SEA practices within Japan’s ODA is increasing, but there are no consolidated SEA procedures owing to the diverse political and social backgrounds of each ODA recipient nation concerned, and a SEA approach, suitable for Japan’s ODA projects in developing nations, is still under consideration. Based on the review of the recent legalization process of SEA in several African nations and the latest SEA practices conducted therein, issues to be addressed for better future SEA practice are summarized, and then,fundamental directions for possible ways of Japan’s interaction and/or support to achieve more practical and efficient SEA practices in developing nations through Japan’s ODA projects are summarized.
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