Departmental Bulletin Paper 授業現場における質問と発問の違い-語用論と心理学の視点から-
Questioning, Shitsumon and Hatsumon in classroom setting: a view from pragmatics and psychology

小沢, 一仁  ,  重光, 由加

学校教育の授業の場で、教師が学び手に発する質問と発問の違いにつ いて、語用論と心理学の視点から明らかにすることを目的とする。その中で、語用論においては、これまでの先行研究における知見から質問と発 問の違いについて検討する。また、心理学からは、記憶と理解という点、 および教師の役割モデルという点から検討する。
This paper focuses on questioning in classroom setting. In Japanese, questioning from teacehrs to learners are categorized into shitsumon (ordinary questioning) and ‘hatsumon (effective questioning). A Hatsumon is a questions asked by teachers to learners to encourage students to speak and express themselves, Hatsumon should explore the depth of students’ knowledge, and require students to extend answer, think critically and creatively. However, many of the teachers whose native language is Japanese feel difficulties to ask hatsumon type of questions. In this paper, Shigemitsu discusses why they feel such difficulties. She employs literatures on question-answer sequence from the pragmatic point of view. It is clarified that Japanese people do not use this type of questions in ordinary conversation. Therefore, hatsumon is a marked verbal behavior. However, in the classroom setting, the term shitsumon has different meaning from ordinary usages. Ozawa discusses differences between shitsumon and hatsumon in the classroom setting from the aspect of psychology. His discussion indicates that that shitsumon corresponds to ‘students’ memory’ and hatsumon corresponds to ‘students’ understanding.’ Teachers have two roles: a role of a messenger of content of each subject to learners and a role of bridge between learners and the content of each subject. The former is compatible with shitsumon and the latter is compatible with hatsumon.

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