〔資料〕仮設住宅における社会的孤立と精神保健 ―東日本大震災から3年後の状況―〔資料〕仮設住宅における社会的孤立と精神保健 ―東日本大震災から3年後の状況― Social Isolation and Mental Health among Disaster Survivors Living in Prefabricated Temporary Housing: A Qualitative Survey Three Years after the Great East Japan Earthquake
As of January 2016, there are 178,000 evacuees forced to leave their homes by the Great East Japan Earthquake（GEJE）and 65,704 temporary prefabricated housing units. Within two or three years of both the Hanshin Awaji and Chuetsu Earthquakes an incremental growth in the suicide rate among disaster was observed. In an effort to determine the cause for this we interviewed twenty of the elderly people who were evacuated after the GEJE. The subjects were 20 people over 65 years old who have been living in temporary housing for 3 years. They were interviewed in person using a semi-structured questionnaire in 2014. Most of the participants had been engaged in agriculture or fishery and had experienced the sudden loss of family members, friends, and property in the aftermath of the GEJE. Findings indicate that individuals who had less emotional and financial support had experienced greater feeling of sadness, social isolation, and suicidal thoughts. They had been strongly affected by economic insecurity which aggravates the risks for social isolation and psychological distress. The destruction of the local economy further exacerbated the vulnerable situation of the older adults. The findings also suggest that the “Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030” and “Build Back Better” plans for reconstruction and recovery need to be customized to better address the situation of the older adults and reduce the risk that they will commit suicide.