Departmental Bulletin Paper 「ふくし」教育における「HBV感染者理解」の学習効果
Learning Effect of "Understanding Hepatitis B Virus Patients" at "Fukushi" Education Setting
フクシ キョウイク ニオケル HBV カンセンシャ リカイ ノ ガクシュウ コウカ

岡, 多枝子  ,  片山, 善博  ,  三並, めぐる  ,  Taeko, Oka  ,  Yoshihiro, Katayama  ,  Meguru, Minami

Description
国によって引き起こされた B 型肝炎感染被害は, 重篤な肝疾患をはじめ, 失職や経済困窮, 医療現場の不適切な対応等の社会的不利をもたらしている (厚生労働省 2013). 中でも, 偏見や差別は深刻な生きづらさとなっており, 学校教育をはじめ感染者理解の教育が求められている. そこで本稿では, HBV に関する既習経験が一度もない大学生に対して, HBV 感染者理解の学習効果を検討することを目的とした研究を行う. 研究方法は, 福祉系大学において 「HBV 感染者理解」 に関する講義と質問紙調査 (2014) を行い, 回収したデータの中で学習経験のない大学生の記述内容を対象として, KJ 法による質的研究を行った. その結果, ①講義前は, 授業テーマの理解が曖昧で, HBV 感染者とも心的距離がある一方, 今後の福祉実践への熱意も示された. ②講義後は, 感染予防策, 社会的排除, 感染被害の公的責任など福祉課題の明確化や, 感染者への接近志向性が示された. 以上のことから, 「HBV 感染者理解」 教育は, 1 回でも, HBV 感染に関する理解や感染者への共感性を高める効果があるとの知見を得た. 今後, HBV 感染理解を促す教材化や授業法の検討, 既習経験がある学生との比較などが研究課題である.
Those infected with hepatitis B virus through mass preventive vaccinations by the Japanese government have faced a various social disadvantages such as severe liver disease, losing job, decrease in income, unjust responses from medical institutions. Beside these hardships, the problem of prejudice and discrimination toward the patients has been very serious. Thus there are increasing needs for awareness raising and learning opportunities for people in general and especially for the youth. This paper examines learning effect of university students who have had no learning opportunity on the matter of "understanding HBV patients" in the past. The examination method is the following. First, a lecture on "Understanding HBV Patients" was given and a questionnaire survey (2014) was followed. Then, the students' descriptive answers from the questionnaire were applied to the KJ Method' qualitative research method. As a result, the followings were found. Though before the lecture, many of the students had very vague understanding of the matter and had felt some psychological distance from the HBV patens, there was also enthusiasm for the practical use of the knowledge in the future, especially in the field of social welfare works. After the lecture, the students' eyes were wide-open on the social welfare issues such as prevention of infection, social exclusion, and the responsibility of the government on damage of wide-spread infection. Their psychological distance from the patients was also shrunken. Therefore, it became clear that with even one lecture on the matter of "understanding HBV patients," the students' awareness for the matter and sympathy for the patients were remarkably raised. This paper thus concludes that there are now needs for creation of real teaching materials, effective lectures, and also comparison research with other students who have had learning opportunity on the matter in the past.
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