Departmental Bulletin Paper Biomechanical role of joints of lower limb during shock absorbing phase in race walking

山本, 敬三  ,  伊藤, 佑樹  ,  新開谷, 深

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of each joint of the lower limb during theshock absorbing phase in race walking (RW) by comparing it with normal walking (Walk) andrunning (Run). Three active race walkers participated in this study. They performed RW, walk andRun (forefoot-strike) with self-selected speed in a motion capture laboratory. An optical 3D motioncapturing system with two force plates were used. The vertical range of displacement of the centerof mass in RW was the smallest among the three movements. The negative power at the ankle andknee joint were hardly detected in RW, however, a relatively large negative power was observedat the hip joint. The negative works of both total and individual joint were obtained by integratingthe negative power during the shock absorbing phase. The total negative work in Walk (0.14 W/kg) was the smallest among the three motions. The ratio of the hip joint in RW was greater (36.7%)than the other joints.
本研究の目的は,陸上競技の競歩(race walk,以下RW)の衝撃吸収局面における下肢の各関節の役割を,正常歩行(Walk)および走行(Run)と比較して調べることとした。 本研究には3人の現役の競歩選手が参加した。動作計測では,光学式三次元動作分析装置と床反力計2台を用いて,RW, Walk, Run(前足部接地)を自己選択のスピードで実行した。分析では,重心,床反力,関節角度,関節モーメントおよび関節パワーに着目した。関節については,下肢三関節(股・膝・足関節)を分析対象とした。RWにおける重心の鉛直方向の変動幅は,3つの動作の中で最小であった。RWでは足関節および膝関節の負のパワーはほとんど検出されなかったが,股関節では比較的大きな負のパワーが発揮された。衝撃吸収局面における負のパワーを時間積分することによって,各関節と下肢三関節の合成の負の仕事量を算出した。Walkにおける負の全仕事量は,3つの運動の中で最も小さかった(0.14W/kg)。RWにおける股関節の負の仕事量の割合は膝・足関節のそれよりも大きかった(36.7%)。

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