Monte Carlo study of out-of-field exposure in carbon-ion radiotherapy with a passive beam: Organ doses in prostate cancer treatmentMonte Carlo study of out-of-field exposure in carbon-ion radiotherapy with a passive beam: Organ doses in prostate cancer treatment
PurposeThe aim of this work was to estimate typical dose equivalents to out-of-field organs during carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with a passive beam for prostate cancer treatment. Additionally, sensitivity analyses of organ doses for various beam parameters and phantom sizes were performed.MethodsBecause the CIRT out-of-field dose depends on the beam parameters, the typical values of those parameters were determined from statistical data on the target properties of patients who received CIRT at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Using these typical beam-parameter values, out-of-field organ dose equivalents during CIRT for typical prostate treatment were estimated by Monte Carlo simulations using the Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) and the ICRP reference phantom.ResultsThe results showed that the dose decreased with distance from the target, ranging from 116 mSv in the testes to 7 mSv in the brain. The organ dose equivalents per treatment dose were lower than those either in 6-MV intensity-modulated radiotherapy or in brachytherapy with an Ir-192 source for organs within 40 cm of the target. Sensitivity analyses established that the differences from typical values were within ∼30% for all organs, except the sigmoid colon.ConclusionsThe typical out-of-field organ dose equivalents during passive-beam CIRT were shown. The low sensitivity of the dose equivalent in organs farther than 20 cm from the target indicated that individual dose assessments required for retrospective epidemiological studies may be limited to organs around the target in cases of passive-beam CIRT for prostate cancer.