Journal Article Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Bulgarian Rosa alba L. essential oil – in vitro model study

Jovtchev, Gabrielle  ,  Stankov, Alexander  ,  Georgieva, Almira  ,  Dobreva, Anna  ,  Bakalova, Rumiana  ,  Aoki, Ichio  ,  Mileva, Milka

Background/Aim: Rose alba L. also known as the white oil-bearing rose, has been cultivatedin relatively small areas of Europe – predominantly in the Rose Valley of Bulgaria. Theessential rose oils of Rosa alba L. is among the most expensive products on the worldmarkets. In the last years, an increasing number of studies in vitro and in vivo, includingclinical studies, have demonstrated a therapeutic efficacy of rose oils. However, little isknown about the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the phytocomplex oil extract, derivedfrom Rosa alba L., and its constituents. The aim of the present work was to investigatecytotoxicity and clastogenic effects of Rosa alba L. essential oil and its main constituents –geraniol and citral. Methods: We used classical cytogenetic methods and comet assay. 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine was used as a standard mutagen. Results: The data showthat Rose alba L. essential oil (in concentrations up to 1000 g/ml) did not exhibit astatistically significant cytotoxic effect. The oil extract did not increase significantly the levelof mitotic disturbances (micronuclei and aneuploidy effects) and has no significant effect on the induction of chromatid aberrations, compared to the untreated control sample. Onlygeraniol and citral (in concentrations used) increased significantly the percentage of migratedDNA in the comet tail, compared to the whole oil extract. Conclusion: This study gives areason to believe that rose oils and some of their constituents have a potential assupplementary components in anticancer therapy. They would be harmless to normal cells andtissues, but with potential for additive or synergistic cytotoxicity against cancer cells.

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