Journal Article Low- and High-LET Ionizing Radiation Induces Delayed Homologous Recombination that Persists for Two Weeks before Resolving

P. Allen, Christopher  ,  Hirakawa, Hirokazu  ,  Izumi Nakajima, Nakako  ,  Moore, Sophia  ,  Nie, Jingyi  ,  Sharma, Neelam  ,  Sugiura, Mayumi  ,  Hoki, Yuko  ,  Araki, Ryoko  ,  Abe, Masumi  ,  Okayasu, Ryuichi  ,  Fujimori, Akira  ,  A. Nickoloff, Jac

188 ( 1 )  , pp.82 - 93 , 2018-01 , Radiation Research Society
Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer cells and dysregulation or defects in DNA repair pathways cause genome instability and are linked to inherited cancer predisposition syndromes. Ionizing radiation can cause immediate effects such as mutation or cell death, observed within hours or a few days after irradiation. Ionizing radiation also induces delayed effects many cell generations after irradiation. Delayed effects include hypermutation, hyper-homologous recombination, chromosome instability and reduced clonogenic survival (delayed death). Delayed hyperrecombination (DHR) is mechanistically distinct from delayed chromosomal instability and delayed death. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) direct repeat homologous recombination system, time-lapse microscopy and colony-based assays, we demonstrate that DHR increases several-fold in response to low-LET X rays and high-LET carbon-ion radiation. Time-lapse analyses of DHR revealed two classes of recombinants not detected in colony-based assays, including cells that recombined and then senesced or died. With both low- and high-LET radiation, DHR was evident during the first two weeks postirradiation, but resolved to background levels during the third week. The results indicate that the risk of radiation-induced genome destabilization via DHR is time limited, and suggest that there is little or no additional risk of radiation-induced genome instability mediated by DHR with high-LET radiation compared to low-LET radiation.

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