||Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil using radiation-grafted fibrous catalyst
植木, 悠二 ,
佐伯, 誠一 ,
保科, 宏行瀬古, 典明
Radiation Physics and Chemistry
46 , 2018-02 , Elsevier Ltd.
Waste cooking oil, which can be used as a raw material for biodiesel fuel (BDF), contains two kinds of oil components: triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). Therefore, both alkaline-type and acid-type catalysts are needed to produce BDF from waste cooking oil. In this study, an alkaline-type grafted fibrous catalyst bearing OH- ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion grafting of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto a polyethylene-coated polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabric, amination with trimethylamine, and further treatment with NaOH. Furthermore, an acid-type catalyst bearing H+ ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion grafting of ethyl p-styrenesulfonate onto a PE/PP nonwoven fabric, saponification with NaOH, and protonation with HNO3. The OH- and H+ densities of the grafted fibrous catalysts were controlled by the grafting yield. The maximum OH- and H+ densities of the catalysts were 3.6 mmol-OH-/g-catalyst and 3.4 mmol-H+/g-catalyst, respectively. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in the batchwise transesterification of TGs and ethanol, and the batchwise esterification of FFAs and ethanol. In both cases, TGs and FFAs were gradually converted into BDF. The mixed oil and four actual waste cooking oils, which contained both TGs and FFAs, were completely converted into BDF by sequential catalytic reactions with the acid-type grafted fibrous catalyst and then the alkaline-type grafted fibrous catalyst.