Journal Article Progressive hypofractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Combined analyses of 2 prospective trials

Kasuya, Goro  ,  Katou, Hirotoshi  ,  Yasuda, Shigeo  ,  Tsuji, Hiroshi  ,  Yamada, Shigeru  ,  Haruyama, Yasuo  ,  Kobashi, Gen  ,  Ebner, Daniel  ,  Okada, Naomi  ,  Makishima, Hirokazu  ,  Miyazaki, Masaru  ,  Kamada, Tadashi  ,  Tsujii, Hirohiko

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with stepwise dose escalation and hypofractionation in 2 combined prospective trials.METHODS: Sequential phase 1/2 (protocol 9603) and phase 2 (protocol 0004) trials were conducted for patients with histologically proven HCC. The phase 1 component of protocol 9603 was a dose-escalation study; CIRT was delivered in 12, 8, or 4 fractions. After determination of the recommended dose, 2 phase 2 trials were performed in an expanded cohort, and the data were pooled to analyze toxicity, local control, and overall survival.RESULTS: In the phase 1 component of protocol 9603, 69.6, 58.0, and 52.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) in 12, 8, and 4 fractions, respectively, constituted the maximum tolerated doses, and 52.8 Gy (RBE) in 4 fractions was established as the recommended dose regimen for the 2 phase 2 studies. In 124 patients with a total of 133 lesions, few severe adverse effects occurred, and local-control and overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 94.7% and 90.3%, 91.4% and 50.0%, and 90.0% and 25.0%, respectively; this included 1-, 3-, and 5-year local-control rates of 97.8%, 95.5%, and 91.6%, respectively, in the phase 2 study. In a multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh class B and the presence of a tumor thrombus were significant factors for mortality.CONCLUSIONS: The safety and efficacy of CIRT in 12, 8, and 4 fractions were confirmed, with 52.8 Gy (RBE) in 4 fractions established as the recommended treatment course for eligible HCC patients. Cancer 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

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