Journal Article Treatment planning of intensity modulated composite particle therapy with dose and linear energy transfer optimization

Inaniwa, Taku  ,  Kanematsu, Nobuyuki  ,  Noda, Koji  ,  Kamada, Tadashi

62pp.5180 - 5197 , 2017-07 , IOP publishing
The biological effect of charged-particle beams depends on both dose and particle spectrum. As one of the physical quantities describing the particle spectrum of charged-particle beams, we took the linear energy transfer (LET) throughout this study. We investigated a new therapeutic technique using two or more ion species in one treatment session, which we call an Intensity Modulated composite PArtiCle Therapy (IMPACT), for optimizing the physical dose and dose-averaged LET distributions in a patient as its proof of principle. Protons and helium, carbon, and oxygen ions were considered as ion species for IMPACT. For three cubic targets of 4 × 4 × 4, 8 × 8 × 8, and 12 × 12 × 12 cm3 defined at the center of the water phantom of 20 × 20 × 20 cm3, we made IMPACT plans of two composite fields with opposing and orthogonal geometries. The prescribed dose to the target was fixed at 1 Gy, while the prescribed LET to the target was varied from 1 keV/μm to 120 keV/μm to investigate the range of LET valid for prescription. The minimum and maximum prescribed LETs, (LT_min, LT_max), by the opposing-field geometry were (3 keV/μm, 115 keV/μm), (2 keV/μm, 84 keV/μm), and (2 keV/μm, 66 keV/μm), while those by the orthogonal-field geometry were (8 keV/μm, 98 keV/μm), (7 keV/μm, 72 keV/μm), and (8 keV/μm, 57 keV/μm) for the three targets, respectively. To show the proof of principle of IMPACT in a clinical situation, we made IMPACT plans for a prostate case. In accordance with the prescriptions, LETs in prostate, planning target volume (PTV), and rectum could be adjusted at 80 keV/μm, at 50 keV/μm, and below 30 keV/μm, respectively, while keeping the dose to the PTV at 2 Gy uniformly. IMPACT enables the optimization of the dose and the LET distributions in a patient, which will maximize the potential of charged particle therapy by expanding the therapeutic window. Further studies and developments will enable this therapeutic technique in clinical practice.

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