Journal Article Health risk assessment for carcinogenic and non- carcinogenic heavy metal exposures from vegetables and fruits of Bangladesh

Mahfuza Sharifa, Sultana  ,  Rana, S.  ,  Yamazaki, Shinnosuke  ,  Aono, Tatsuo  ,  Yoshida, Satoshi

3 ( 1 )  , pp.1291107-1 - 1291107-17 , 2017-02 , Cogent
Most popular vegetables and fruits and their corresponding soil from the sub-urban industrial area of Bangladesh were collected and the concentration of carcinogenic (Pb, As, and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Fe, Co, V, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Ni) heavy metals was determined. Health risk was evaluated by estimating daily heavy metal intake and computing cancer and non-cancer risks (ILCR and THQ) using probabilistic risk assessment model of US-EPA. Heavy metals in vegetables varied with vegetable species as well as metal types. Higher daily intake of As, Fe, Mn, and Pb was observed from the consumption of root and leafy vegetables. Moreover, the probability of an adult for developing cancer from the consumption of studied veg- etables was greater than US-EPA threshold risk limit (>10−4) for As and Cd. In addi- tion, cumulative cancer risk (∑ILCR) of all the studied vegetables and fruits exceeded the limit for fruit, root, leafy vegetables, and fruits (22, 15, 59, and 4%) with As, Cd, and Pb as 17, 81, and 2%, respectively. Non-cancer risk index also presented Pb, As, Mn, and Fe as the dominant contaminants of root and leafy vegetables that contrib- uted 80–90% of HI. It suggests that the study area is unsuitable for growing leafy and root vegetables due to the risk of higher intakes of heavy metals which a ect food safety. Mn, Pb, Fe, and As are the most predominant heavy metals posing non- cancer risk while Cd caused the highest cancer risk.

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