Journal Article Development of a low-energy X-ray camera for the imaging of secondary electron bremsstrahlung X-ray emitted during proton irradiation for range estimation

安藤, 昇輝(名古屋大学)  ,  山口, 充孝  ,  山本, 誠一(名古屋大学)  ,  歳藤, 利行(名古屋陽子線治療センター)  ,  河地, 有木

62 ( 12 )  , pp.5006 - 5020 , 2017-05 , IOP Publishing
ISSN:0031-9155
Description
Imaging of secondary electron bremsstrahlung X-ray emitted during proton irradiation is a possible method for measurement of the proton beam distribution in phantom. However, it is not clear that the method is used for range estimation of protons. For this purpose, we developed a low-energy X-ray camera and conducted imaging of the bremsstrahlung X-ray produced during irradiation of proton beams. We used a 20 mm x 20 mm x 1 mm finely grooved GAGG scintillator that was optically coupled to a one-inch square high quantum efficiency (HQE)-type position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to form an imaging detector. The imaging detector was encased in a 2-cm-thick tungsten container, and a pinhole collimator was attached to its camera head. After performance of the camera was evaluated, secondary electron bremsstrahlung X-ray imaging was conducted during irradiation of the proton beams for three different proton energies, and the results were compared with Monte Carlo simulation as well as calculated value. The system spatial resolution and sensitivity of the developed X-ray camera with 1.5-mm-diameter pinhole collimator were estimated to be 32 mm FWHM and 5.2 x 10-7 for ~35-keV X-ray photons at 100 cm from the collimator surface, respectively. We could image the proton beam tracks by measuring the secondary electron bremsstrahlung X-ray during irradiation of the proton beams, and the ranges for different proton energies could be estimated from the images. The measured ranges from the images were well matched with the Monte Carlo simulation, and slightly smaller than the calculated values. We confirmed that the imaging of the secondary electron bremsstrahlung X-ray emitted during proton irradiation with the developed X-ray camera has the potential to be a new tool for proton range estimations.

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