Mechanism for verification of mismatched and homoduplex DNAs by nucleotides-bound MutS analyzed by molecular dynamics simulationsMechanism for verification of mismatched and homoduplex DNAs by nucleotides-bound MutS analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations
In order to understand how MutS recognizes mismatched DNA and induces the reaction of DNA repair using ATP, the dynamics of the complexes of MutS (bound to the ADP and ATP nucleotides, or not) and DNA (with mismatched and matched base-pairs) were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. As for DNA, the structure of the base-pairs of the homoduplex DNA which interacted with the DNA recognition site of MutS was intermittently disturbed, indicating that the homoduplex DNA was unstable. As for MutS, the disordered loops in the ATPase domains, which are considered to be necessary for the induction of DNA repair, were close to (away from) the nucleotide-binding sites in the ATPase domains when the nucleotides were (not) bound to MutS. This indicates that the ATPase domains changed their structural stability upon ATP binding using the disordered loop. Conformational analysis by principal component analysis showed that the nucleotide binding changed modes which have structurally solid ATPase domains and the large bending motion of the DNA from higher to lower frequencies. In the MutS-mismatched DNA complex bound to two nucleotides, the bending motion of the DNA at low frequency modes may play a role in triggering the formation of the sliding clamp for the following DNA-repair reaction step. Moreover, MM-PBSA/GBSA showed that the MutS-homoduplex DNA complex bound to two nucleotides was unstable because of the unfavorable interactions between MutS and DNA. This would trigger the ATP hydrolysis or separation of MutS and DNA to continue searching for mismatch base-pairs.