Journal Article G2-M phase-correlative bystander effects are co-mediated by DNA-PKcs and ATM after carbon ion irradiation

Tu, Wenzhi  ,  Dong, Chen  ,  Konishi, Teruaki  ,  Kobayashi, Alisa  ,  Furusawa, Yoshiya  ,  Uchihori, Yukio  ,  Xie, Yuexia  ,  Dang, Bingrong  ,  Li, Wenjian  ,  Shao, Chunlin

Accumulated evidence has shown that radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) may have significant implications to the efficiency of radiotherapy. Although cellular radiosensitivity relies on cell cycle status, it is largely unknown how about the relationship between RIBE and cell cycle distribution, much less the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the lung cancer A549 cells were synchronized into different cell cycle phases of G1, S and G2/M and irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ions. By treating nonirradiated cells with the conditioned medium from these irradiated cells, it was found that the G2-M phase cells had thelargest contribution to RIBE. Meanwhile, the activity of DNA-PKcs but not ATM was increased in the synchronized G2-M phase cells in spite of both of them were activated in the asynchronous cells after carbon ion irradiation. When the G2-M phased cells were transferred with DNA-PKcs siRNA and ATM siRNA individually or treated with an inhibitor of either DNA-PKcs or ATM before carbon ion irradiation, the RIBE was effectively diminished. These results provide new evidence linking cell cycle to bystander responses and demonstrate that DNA-PKcs and ATM are two associated factors in co-regulating G2-M phase-related bystander effects.

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