Journal Article Four-dimensional layer-stacking carbon-ion beam dose distribution by use of a lung numeric phantom.

Mori, Shinichiro  ,  Kumagai, Motoki  ,  Miki, Kentaro

8 ( 2 )  , pp.232 - 242 , 2015-04 , Springer Japan
To extend layer-stacking irradiation to accommodate intrafractional organ motion, we evaluated the carbon-ion layer-stacking dose distribution using a numeric lung phantom. We designed several types of range compensators. The planning target volume was calculated from the respective respiratory phases for consideration of intrafractional beam range variation. The accumulated dose distribution was calculated by registering of the dose distributions at respective phases to that at the reference phase. We evaluated the dose distribution based on the following six parameters: motion displacement, direction, gating window, respiratory cycle, range-shifter change time, and prescribed dose. All parameters affected the dose conformation to the moving target. By shortening of the gating window, dose metrics for superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) motions were decreased from a D95 of 94 %, Dmax of 108 %, and homogeneity index (HI) of 23 % at T00-T90, to a D95 of 93 %, Dmax of 102 %, and HI of 20 % at T40-T60. In contrast, all dose metrics except the HI were independent of respiratory cycle. All dose metrics in SI motion were almost the same in respective motion displacement, with a D95 of 94 %, Dmax of 108 %, Dmin of 89 %, and HI of 23 % for the ungated phase, and D95 of 93 %, Dmax of 102 %, Dmin of 85 %, and HI of 20 % for the gated phase. The dose conformation to a moving target was improved by the gating strategy and by an increase in the prescribed dose. A combination of these approaches is a practical means of adding them to existing treatment protocols without modifications.

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