学術雑誌論文 Life on thin ice: Insights from Uummannaq, Greenland for connecting climate science with Arctic communities

13pp.100 - 108 , 2017-09
ISSN:18739652
内容記述
What are the links between mainstream climate science and local community knowledge? This study takes the example of Greenland, considered one of the regions most impacted by climate change, and Inuit people, characterized as being highly adaptive to environmental change, to explore this question. The study is based on 10 years of anthropological participatory research in Uummannaq, Northwest Greenland, along with two fieldwork periods in October 2014 and April 2015, and a quantitative bibliometric analysis of the international literature on sea ice – a central subject of concern identified by Uummannaq community members during the fieldwork periods. Community members' perceptions of currently available scientific climate knowledge were also collected during the fieldwork. This was done to determine if community members consider available scientific knowledge salient and if it covers issues they consider relevant. The bibliometric analysis of the sea ice literature provided additional insight into the degree to which scientific knowledge about climate change provides information relevant for the community. Our results contribute to the ongoing debate on the missing connections between community worldviews, cultural values, livelihood needs, interests and climate science. Our results show that more scientific research efforts should consider local-level needs in order to produce local-scale knowledge that is more salient, credible and legitimate for communities experiencing climate change. In Uummannaq, as in many Inuit communities with similar conditions, more research should be done on sea ice thickness in winter and in areas through which local populations travel. This paper supports the growing evidence that whenever possible, climate change research should focus on environmental features that matter to communities, at temporal and spatial scales relevant to them, in order to foster community adaptations to change. We recommend such research be connected to and co-constructed with local communities to ensure their needs and values are integrated into the research process and outputs.
本研究では、気候変動に最も影響を受けた地域の一つであると考えられるグリーンランドと、環境の変化に適応していると特徴付けられているイヌイットの地域社会を例にとり、気候科学と地域社会との関係を考察する。本研究は、2回のフィールドワークおよび、ウマナック地域の人々にとって最大の懸念である海氷のことについての国際文献の計量学的分析による、北西グリーンランド、ウマナックにおける10年間の人類学調査に基づいている。この結果は、気候変動を経験した地域社会の適応をより促進するために、彼らにとって重要な環境的特徴、それらに関連する時間的および空間的スケールに焦点を当て、その必要性を考慮すべきであることを示している。ウマナックでは、似たような多くのイヌイットのコミュニティーと同じように、冬の、人々がその上を移動する海氷の厚さについて、より多くの調査を行う必要があった。このような研究が、その重要で価値あることが研究を行う上で、また成果に確かに生かされるよう、地域社会と連携して共同で構築されることを望む。

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