学術雑誌論文 What influences heavy metals accumulation in arctic lichen Cetrariella delisei in Svalbard?

10 ( 4 )  , pp.532 - 540 , 2016-12
ISSN:18739652
内容記述
The main aim of this study was to identify variations in heavy metal concentrations in Cetrariella delisei along a transect from a High Arctic glacier forehead to the shoreline as well as determine the main environmental factors influencing the deposition of heavy metals in arctic lichens. The macrolichen Cetrariella delisei appears to be an interesting alternative to those lichen species used in the past (e.g. Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia sp.) for heavy metal biomonitoring purposes in the Arctic: it is widely distributed, easy to identify and reluctantly grazed by reindeer. Fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2012 in the Kaffiøyra Plain, Oskar II Land, NW Spitsbergen. C. delisei and soil samples were collected from 5 localities. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in each sample. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for all the analyzed elements. The BAFs for Cu, Mn, and Ni showed a relatively low accumulation level in lichen thalli. On the other hand, the BAFs for Cr, Pb, and Zn, revealed an increased accumulation level in C. delisei. The Cd content in lichen is almost equal to its level in the soil. The statistical analyses covered three environmental factors: soil pH, substrate type and distance from the shoreline. The data were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test. The results show that distance from the shoreline had the greatest influence on the majority of the heavy metal concentrations in the lichen thalli and the soil. However, the level of Mn accumulated in the soil is determined by its source in the glacier. Moreover, the soil pH had the greatest effect on the Cd accumulated in the soil and the Mn accumulated in the lichen thalli.
地衣類Cetrariella deliseiを材料とし、高緯度北極の氷河末端域から海岸までのトランセクトに沿った重金属含有量の変動、また地衣類への重金属蓄積に影響する主たる環境要因を明らかにすることを目的として研究が行われた。調査は、2012年夏にスピッツベルゲン島のOskar II Land、Kaffiøyra Plainで行われ、C. deliseiと土壌を5地点でサンプリングし、クロム、マンガン、ニッケル、銅、亜鉛、鉛、カドニウムの含有量が測定され、生物濃縮係数(BAF)が算出された。その結果、地衣類への蓄積レベルは銅、マンガン、ニッケルでは比較的低いが、クロム、鉛、亜鉛では高く、カドミウムでは土壌とほとんど同一であった。環境要因に関する統計解析の結果、地衣類と土壌の重金属濃度に対し、海岸からの距離が最大の影響を示した。一方で土壌へのマンガン蓄積は、氷河内の供給源によって決定されていた。また土壌のpHは土壌のカドミウム、および地衣類のマンガン蓄積に大きく影響していた。

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