学術雑誌論文 Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

10 ( 3 )  , pp.312 - 322 , 2016-09
ISSN:18739652
内容記述
The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the Svalbard zone (approximately ICES area IIb). The large fishery for capelin in summer yielding annual catches up to 737 000 tons was closed by a Norwegian fishery regulation in the mid nineteen nineties. Demersal fisheries have been continuous, and the results clearly indicate a northward trend in landings of Northeast Arctic cod, haddock, ling and Atlantic halibut. Fisheries of Northern shrimp have been more variable and shown no clear geographic trends. A “gold rush” fishery for scallops north of Svalbard lasted for about 10 years (1986–1995) only, and ended due to low profitably. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of further northward extension of fisheries subjected to climate change.
北極圏にあるスバールバル諸島周辺海域は、北極海の寒冷な水塊と南方から流入する温暖な西スピッツベルゲン海流の影響を受ける。そのため、冬季,諸島の東部水域とフィヨルド内は海氷に覆われるが、西部の沿岸域は海氷に覆われることはない。ノルウエーの主要な漁業は、数十年間スバールバル諸島周辺海域で行われてきており、1980年以降の詳細な漁獲記録が残っている。本論文ではスバールバル諸島周辺海域における魚種毎の長期にわたる漁獲記録の解析から気候変動に伴って当該諸島周辺の漁業がより北方へ拡大していく可能性について論考した。

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