学術雑誌論文 Resilience in polar ecosystems: From drivers to impacts and changes

10 ( 1 )  , pp.52 - 59 , 2016-03
ISSN:1873-9652
内容記述
The theory of resilience is increasing in applied ecosystem research and has become a valuable concept for analyzing relationships between natural environments and various stressors, e.g., global warming or direct human impacts. This concept offers opportunities to apply management strategies to different system levels and can provide insights into future ecosystem change. Polar systems are known to be ecologically sensitive to global and local impacts. Records of changes in polar environments, used as alarm signals by governmental and non-governmental institutions, are well documented in various reports. However, it remains difficult to define specific disturbance thresholds, only few methods allow an evaluation of the actual natural state of polar systems, its degree of modification they can accommodate before trophic systems change with severe damages. Some of the main drivers of system changes have been analyzed with respect to possible effects on system changes over different time scales. This paper reviews studies of polar ecosystems and their ability to cope with changes by assessing their resilience in response to human disturbances. Furthermore, we suggest that a customized framework (drivers, pressures, states, impacts, and responses (DPSIR)) should be applied to obtain an improved understanding of the interactions between the state of, and changes in, natural systems.
生態系のレジリエンスについての理論は、応用生態系研究の分野で増えつつあり、自然環境とそれに対する様々なストレス(地球温暖化や人間活動の直接的影響など)の関係を分析するための有効な概念となった。この概念はまた、生態系変化の将来予測も可能とする。しかし、攪乱の程度に対して特定の閾値を定めることは困難であり、極域の自然環境を実際に評価できる手法はほとんどない。本論文では、極域における生態系と環境変動に対するその耐性について、人間活動による攪乱に対するレジリエンスを評価した過去の研究を取り上げ、概説する。さらに、自然環境の状態や変化に関する高度化した理解に必要な、修整されたモデル(根本的原因、負荷、状態、影響、対策(DPSIR))を提案する。

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