In water polo games, a team’s offensive ability with the extra-man after an exclusion foul canmake the difference between victory and defeat. In the 42 games played by the 12 men’s teamsat the 2016 Olympic Games, there were 812 exclusion fouls of which 310 led to a goal. Thepurpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of extra-man offense in water polo. Datawere obtained and analyzed from the 605 instances in which the extra-man formation used a 4-2system leading up to a shot. Videos of the games were watched and principal component analysiswas carried out on various data. Two principal components were extracted: breaking up the defensive formation and shootingmotion. Then, a cluster analysis using these scores was carried out, and characteristics of theextra-man offense were classified into four clusters:CL1: One-motion shots after a parallel passCL2: Shots after breaking up the defensive formationCL3: Various shots from the top positionCL4: Shots with faking motion from the side position No team used CL1 with great frequency because it tends not to be a high-success shootingtechnique. The success rate with CL2 was high because the offensive team had found an openingin the defensive formation. The teams using this method most often were AUS, USA, CRO, ESPand SRB. CL3 tended to appear when a certain player had a particular shooting technique fromthe top position or when the team needed to shoot because the excluded player was about toreturn. Teams using this strategy frequently included AUS, JPN, FRA and HUN. Finally, CL4was a common technique for MNE, FRA and SRB. The principal component analysis was effective in distinguishing the characteristic strategies ofeach team’s extra-man offense.