紀要論文 近代の神社境内の研究動向
Trends in Research on Modern Shinto Shrine Grounds
キンダイ ノ ジンジャ ケイダイ ノ ケンキュウ ドウコウ

小林, 章  ,  Akira, Kobayashi

61 ( 4 )  , pp.126 - 136 , 2017-03-15
NII書誌ID(NCID):AN00164184
内容記述
日本の明治時代から昭和戦前までの,近代の神社に関する研究は近年活発である。神道史,建築史,都市史,造園史,観光史の各分野で研究が進められている。そのなかで近代の神社境内の特徴が明らかになりつつある。明治政府は祭政一致であり,神道を国家の宗祀とし,神社境内から仏教の要素が取り払われた。法令により,神社は境内以外に所有していた土地を政府に収容され,広い神社林を失った例も多かった。明治政府は伊勢神宮を頂点に神社に社格を設け,国が予算を支出する神社など各地の神社を階層化した。明治時代の初頭に,皇室の祖先を祀る神社や,皇室の忠臣を祀る神社が日本各地に創建された。政府には神社に関する部局があり,そこに神社の営繕組織もでき,新設の神社には神社境内の社殿配置や規模の制限図が制定され,標準化が行われた。一方,古い神社は伝統の形式が尊重された。明治の初頭に政府側の戦没者を祀る東京招魂社が創建され,靖国神社に改称,戦争のたびに祀る戦没者を増やし,境内は改造された。明治初年の公園に関する法制により,神社境内が公園とされた事例もあった。大正時代に,明治天皇を祀る明治神宮が東京に創建されるときも制限図を参考にしていた。敷地の選定,社殿の形式,神社林の構成樹種などについて深く議論された。明治神宮の神苑は,神社林に囲まれた社殿のある内苑と,記念絵画館と体育施設のある洋式の外苑とが離れて整備され,東京の都市計画に大きな影響を与えた。明治神宮の神社林の造成は,椎・樫の照葉樹林を理想とする考え方へと,神社林の考え方の画期となった。明治以降,地元出身の戦没者を祀る招魂社が日本各地に設けられ,それらが昭和戦前の制度により護国神社に改められたが,社殿の形式や規模も政府が定めた。近代の神社の境内には新たな庭園が設けられてきた。近代の神社の境内を構成する石造鳥居,社号を彫った石柱,敷石,石段,石造の柵などの施設も整備されて充実し,神社の地元の石材が使われた。
Research on modern Shinto shrines has been active in recent years, spanning shrines from the Meiji period to the pre-war Showa period in Japan. There is ongoing research in the fields of Shinto history, architectural history, urban history, the history of landscape architecture, and the history of tourism.The Meiji government was theocratic, making the Shinto religion the pillar of the nation. Buddhist elements were removed from the grounds of Shinto shrines. According to government law, the land owned outside of shrine grounds was held by the government, and there are examples of wide areas of the forests surrounding shrines being lost.The Meiji government started ranking shrines, with Ise Jingu at the top, and shrines every where were classified, such as shrines for which the country budgeted.At the beginning of the Meiji period, shrines dedicated to ancestors of the Imperial House of Japan or those dedicated to its loyal retainers were established all over Japan. The government had a section dedicated to shrines, where an organization for upkeep was formed, and the layout of the main building of new shrines and a map dictating the limits of the shrines themselves were created and standardized. In addition, old shrines were held in high regard for their traditional appearance.At the beginning of the Meiji period, a shrine dedicated to the spirits of government soldiers who fell in battle was established. This shrine was renamed “Yasukuni Jinja,” and the grounds were renovated as the number of soldiers increased in war.There are also examples of the grounds of shrines being considered as parks as per a law related to parks from the first year of the Meiji period.During the Taisho period, when Meiji Jingu, dedicated to Emperor Meiji, was established in Tokyo, the standardized map dictating shrine limits was used for reference. There was deep discussion on the selection of the site, the style of the main shrine, and the tree species comprising the shrine forest. The shrine grounds of Meiji Jingu were divided into Meiji Jingu Naien where the main shrine, surrounded by forest, was built and a Western-influenced Meiji Jingu Gaien where the Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery and fitness facilities were built, and this had a large effect on how the city of Tokyo was planned out.When constructing the forest of the shrine, the way of thinking of a shrine forest evolved to idealizing an evergreen forest containing the Castanopsis genus, and evergreen oak trees.From the Meiji period, shrines honoring the spirits of those fallen in war were established all over Japan. These shrines were reformed according to the pre-war Showa period system, and the style of the main building and layout were established by the government.New gardens have been established on the grounds of modern shrines.Maintenance was carried out on the stone Torii gates, name posts carved of stone, paving stones, stone steps, and stone fences found on shrine grounds, and stone from the local area was used.
本文を読む

https://nodai.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=672&item_no=1&attribute_id=19&file_no=1

このアイテムのアクセス数:  回

その他の情報