Departmental Bulletin Paper 有機質肥料の機能性
The Function of Organic Fertilizers
ユウキシツ ヒリョウ ノ キノウセイ

髙橋, 久光  ,  Hisamitsu, Takahashi  ,  東京農業大学名誉教授  ,  Professor Emeritus, Tokyo University of Agriculture

60 ( 4 )  , pp.179 - 188 , 2016-03-15
NCID:AN00164184
Description
化学肥料や農薬を多投し,農業機械を駆使した近代化農業は飛躍的な生産性の向上とともに食料の増産をもたらしてきたが,その反面では地下水の汚染,塩類の集積,生態系の喪失等の環境負荷を招くこととなった。このため,有機物を代替投入する低投入・持続型農業への関心が世界的に高まっており,中でも有機農業は持続可能な農業の一つの形態として注目されている。我が国において,農薬の危険性が認識され始めた1970年代初めから,有機農業が脚光を浴びるようになり,現在では,アレルギー体質者の増加や,O-157,ダイオキシン,さらにはBSE等,食の安全性への不安増大を背景に有機農産物の需要が拡大している。ここでは,色々な有機質肥料と化学肥料とを比較し,それらが野菜の生育および品質に及ぼす影響,並びに土壌の理化学性について調査・実験し,有機質肥料が化学肥料の代替になるかを検討した。
Modern agriculture has realized great progress in productivity and achieved high yields by using chemical fertilizers, agricultural reagents and agricultural machineries. On the other hand, however, it has inevitably invited environmental disorder including underground water pollution, accumulation in salts, dysfunction of ecosystem and so on. Organic agriculture, which is a type of low input sustainable agriculture using organic materials, has therefore received worldwide attention. In our country, it was not until the beginning of the 1970s, before organic agriculture had been highlighted, when the risk of agricultural chemical reagents was recognized. Nowadays, the demands for organic agriculture are expanding in accordance with the increased number of allergy patients, the risk of O-157, dioxins, BSE as well as the social concern for food safety. The products of organic agriculture can be thought as an achievement of sophisticated technology combining the traditional agricultural techniques with modern agricultural techniques which make use of crop rotation and organic fertilizers to maintain soil fertility, natural enemies and/or companion plants to protect crops from pests and diseases. Thus, organic agriculture can be regarded as a sustainable material- recycling agriculture. In this report, we compared the effect of various organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of vegetables along with the physico-chemical characteristics of soil and discussed the possibility of organic fertilizers to be an alternative to chemical fertilizers in the future.
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